Chapter 3b - Chapter 3 Continued Emily Grijalva Sept 09...

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Chapter 3 Continued Emily Grijalva Sept. 09, 2009
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Review SCHEMAS - mental representations of objects or categories that people use to organize their knowledge about the social world Contain the central features of an object or category as well as assumptions about how the object or category works -- Associative Network -- Accessibility -Priming: when a schema has been used recently - Chronic Accessibility: easy to activate across time and situations
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Overview   Heuristics and Biases in Everyday Judgments The Availability Heuristic The Representativeness Heuristic Illusory Correlations The Hindsight Bias: “I knew it all along” The Perseverance Effect   What Might Have Been: Counterfactual Thinking Upward and Downward Counterfactuals   Hot Cognition:  Adding Motives and Mood to the Cognitive Mix
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Reconstructive Memory  DEFINITION - the process of trying to  cognitively rebuild the past based on cues  and estimates  Used for less concrete, less verifiable  questions that can’t be answered by  direct access to objective memories  (e.g., study habits in high school)   One author compared memory to a  totalitarian regime in its propensity to  rewrite history and distort facts in order  to support preordained conclusions  Active schemas, goals, and expectations  influence the outcome while you try to  retrieve information and estimate the  answer to the question  “ Recovered” memories of abuse Childhood Memories Belief in self-improvement over time
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How many tests and exams have you taken in the past year? We often use a “retrieval cue” to begin our  search in memory…    Use your “school schema”?  Count how many courses you have taken and  then estimate?  Think specifically about each test you have  taken and count up your experiences?
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