3-5. Planning - BA 310 Planning 1 Roadmap Planning How...

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1 BA 310: Planning
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2 Roadmap: Planning How should organizations set goals? What defines success in organizations? What are key critiques of planning? How do you plan in dynamic environments? What are the keys to project management? What is the single most important concept in making sure a project comes in on time? Note: Today is selected parts of two chapters (7&9)…
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3 What is planning? Why do we plan? Planning Involves defining the organization’s goals, establishing an overall strategy, and developing a comprehensive set of plans to integrate and coordinate organizational work Why Plan: Establish the basis for all other management functions Increase efficiency - reduce overlapping and wasteful activities Coordinate effort – avoid working at cross-purposes Reduce uncertainty – manage responses to change Establish goals and standards
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4 Traditional Top-Down Goal-Setting Traditional, top-down goal setting: Overall goals are established at the top of the organization. Overall goals are broken down into specific sub-goals at successively lower organizational levels. Assumes that more senior managers know better. Critiques Doesn’t incorporate other managers/workers knowledge Imposing goals produces compliance, not commitment Vulnerable to loss of intent (“telephone game”) Should sound mechanistic ; centralized; and thus, suspicious
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Failure to incorporate key knowledge Individual Employee’s Objective Top Management’s Objective Regional Manager’s Objective Division Manager’s Objective “Your sales quota is $400K up from $320K “Increase our share to 12% from 10% “Focus on increasing Market share” “But I just lost my largest client” Increasingly specific sub-goals Are set as we move down the hierarchy Key knowledge may not be incorporated
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Loss of Intent & Compliance rather than Commitment Line Worker Top Management Shift Manager Division Manager “Don’t worry about Quality – just work fast!” “Increase profits whatever way you can!” “We need to improve the divisions performance!” “OK Boss, Whatever you say” Organization goals can lose their intent as they travel downwards Compliance is likely - not commitment
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7 Collaborative Goal-Setting In most organizations, goals are collaboratively set between managers and their subordinates Incorporates other managers/workers knowledge Gains commitment to goals Less chance of “loss of intent” Addresses key critiques of top-down goal-setting
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8 Management By Objectives (MBO) Management by Objectives (MBO) - specific performance goals for each employee are jointly determined by the employees and their manager Benefits / Features: Inclusive, participative approach generates commitment Progress is periodically reviewed (performance feedback) Rewards are based on progress towards MBO goals MBO (and variants) are a popular way to implement collaborative goal-setting systematically.
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