CH4 Study Guide

CH4 Study Guide - Definitions Mechanical Work: for...

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Definitions Mechanical Work: for breathing, walking, and blood circulation Chemical Work: for the synthesis of biological molecules Transport Work: for maintaining ion gradients across membrane Work: any change in the state or motion of matter ENERGY Energy: the capacity to do work Potential Energy: stored energy Kinetic Energy: energy in motion Light Energy: radiant energy in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum Chemical Energy: potential energy stored in chemical bonds Free Energy: (G) the maximum amount of energy that’s available to do work, w/o /\ T Entropy: (S) quantitative measure of the increase in disorder that occurs w/ every energy transformation THERMODYNAMICS Definitions Thermodynamics: study of energy transformations System: a group of independent but interrelated elements comprising a unified whole Closed System: doesn’t exchange energy with its surroundings Open System: can exchange energy with its surroundings 1 st Law of Thermodynamics: energy cant be created or destroyed 2 nd Law of Thermodynamics: total amount of entropy is increasing in the universe b/c no energy transfer in 100% Heat: the random movement of atoms and molecules. Randomness -as heat increases, so does the rate of particle movement -diffusion occurs from high conc. to low conc. -the total energy in the universe remains constant (1 st Law) -the total amount of unusable energy is increasing (2 nd Law) METABOLISM=ANABOLISM+CATABOLISM Definitions Metabolism: the sum of all chemical activity in an organism Anabolism: more complex molecules are made from simpler substances Catabolism: larger molecules are broken down into smaller molecules
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CH4 Study Guide - Definitions Mechanical Work: for...

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