PHY2048_08-28-09

# PHY2048_08-28-09 - Chapter 2 Motion Along a Straight Line...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 2 Motion Along a Straight Line How objects move along a straight line or 1-Dimensional motion The following parameters will be defined: Displacement Average velocity Average Speed Instantaneous velocity Average and instantaneous acceleration Study the motion of a particle experiencing constant acceleration such as a particle in free fall near the surface of the earth Finally we will study a graphical integration method that can be used to analyze the motion when the acceleration is not constant Particle: We restrict our discussion to the motion of objects for which all the points move in the same way (no relative motion). Displacement. If an object moves from position x 1 to position x 2 , the change in position is described by the displacement For example if x 1 = 5 m and x 2 = 12 m then x = Δ 12m – 5m = 7 m. The positive sign of x indicates that the motion is along the positive x- Δ direction. If the object moves from x 1 = 5 m and x 2 = 1 m then x = 1m – 5m = -4m. Δ The negative sign of x indicates that the motion is along the negative x- Δ direction. Displacement is a vector quantity that has both magnitude and direction. In this restricted one-dimensional motion the direction is described by the algebraic sign of x Δ 2 1 x x x Note: The actual distance for a trip is irrelevant as far as the displacement is concerned Consider as an example the motion of an object from an initial position x 1 = 5 m to x = 200 m and then back to x 2 = 5 m. Even though the total distance covered is 390 m the displacement then x = 0 Δ . . . O x 1 x 2 x-axis motion x Δ Average Velocity One method of describing the motion of an object is to plot its position x(t) as function of time t. In the left picture we plot x versus t for an object that is function of time t....
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PHY2048_08-28-09 - Chapter 2 Motion Along a Straight Line...

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