Exam 201 - Student Name ENVR 201 (01) Society and...

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Unformatted text preview: Student Name ENVR 201 (01) Society and Environment Student Number FINAL EXAMINATION ENVR 201 (01): SOCIETY AND ENVIRONMENT Examiner: Prof. Madhav Badami Tuesday, December 12, 2006 Associate Examiner: Prof. Ismael Vaccaro 9 AM — 12 PM READ THE INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY INSTRUCTIONS: There are three sections in this examination. The first section consists of 20 multiple choice questions, each of which must be answered ON THE COMPUTER FORM PROVIDED. The second section consists of 20 true/false statements. Indicate the truth or falsehood of each statement ON THE SAME COMPUTER FORM. Only a PENCIL ’must be used to enter responses to the multiple choice and True/False questions on the computer form. The third section consists of a total of nine questions that require a short essay answer (of around 150-250 words). There are three parts in this section, with three short essay questions in each part. You will be required to answer a total of five short essay questions, by choosing at least one question, but no more than two questions, from each of the three parts. The five short essay questions should be answered in the EXAMINATION BOOKLETgSQ provided. Warning: The Examination Security Monitor Program detects pairs of students with unusually similar answer patterns on multiple-choice exams. Data generated by this program can be used as admissible evidence, either to initiate or corroborate an investigation or a charge of cheating under Section 16 of the Code of Student Conduct and Disciplinary Procedures. This is a closed-book examination. Notes may not be used. Calculators, thesauruses, and dictionaries are not allowed. However, translation dictionaries are allowed. This Examination comprises eight (8) pages including this cover page. THIS EXAMINATION IS PRINTED ON BOTH SIDES OF THE PAPER. YOU MUST RETURN THE EXAMINATION PAPER. MAKE SURE TO FILL IN YOUR NAME, STUDENT #, AND EXAM VERSION # (INDICATED IN THE BOTTOM RIGHT-HAND CORNER) ON THE COMPUTER FORM. ALSO, MAKE SURE YOU PUT YOUR NAME AND STUDENT # ON THE EXAMINATION PAPER AND EXAMINATION BOOKLET(S). l 1 Version 1 Student Name ENVR 201 (01) Society and Environment Student Number Section 1: Multiple Choice Questions INSTRUCTIONS: Circle the letter representing the most appropriate choice on the computer form. The value of each correct answer is 1.5 points (total 30 points). 1) A Malthusian would argue that: a) population must be controlled to prevent resource over-exploitation. b) unequal distribution of resources, not population, is the real issue. c) technological ‘fixes’ will solve our resource scarcity problems. d) All of the above. e) b and c 2) Urban populations tend to grow faster than rural populations because: a) the death rate in urban areas tends to be lower than in rural areas. b) the birth rate in urban areas tends to be higher than in rural areas. 0) urban populations tend to be younger than in rural areas. d) a and b e) a and c 3) Which of the following statements about resources is TRUE? a) Estimated reserves are those that can be profitably extracted given current prices and technology. b) Non-renewable resources are naturally replenished but at rates that are too slow to be useful. 0) Renewable resources are characterized by fixed stocks. (1) The availability of recyclable resources is measured in terms of “sustainable yield”. e) None of the above. 4) The Club of Rome’s “The Limits to Growth” study assumed, or concluded that: a) Linear growth in population and fixed resource limits. b) Negative feedback loops. c) Carrying capacity that could be enhanced by means of technology. d) “Overshoot and collapse” could be prevented through steady economic growth. 6) None of the above. 5) The declining productivity of global fisheries can be explained by or is reflected in: a) the degradation of fish habitats and climate change. b) the declining by catch. 0) the increasing contribution of marine capture to global fishery production. d) the growing proportion of high value fish in the global catch. 6) b and d 6) Which of the following statements regarding subsidies to fisheries is TRUE? a) “Good” subsidies to reduce fishing effort cost very little money. b) Subsidies to fisheries are difficult to eliminate because of a “social trap”. c) Subsidies to rich country fisheries can affect food security in poor countries. d) b and c e) None of the above. 2 Version 1 Student Name ENVR 201 (01) Society and Environment Student Number 7) Which of the following is likely to undermine domestic food production in developing countries? a) The elimination of subsidies to farmers in rich countries. b) Full-cost pricing of food for urban consumers in developing countries. 0) Tax subsidies for drip irrigation. d) International food aid. e) The prevention of armed conflicts. 8) Which of the following statements regarding waste is TRUE? a) Cold climates aid the breakdown of wastes. b) Landfills do not have climate change implications. 0) Energy can be recovered from automobile tyres. d) Incinerators are likely to consume more land than landfills. e) Newspapers create pollution only when disposed of, not when they are recycled into paper cups. 9) The Catskills/Croton case discussed in class shows that: a) Watershed protection can be less expensive than water treatment. b) Land acquisition is unnecessary for watershed protection. 0) Land use controls are necessary to protect watersheds. d) a and c e) a and b 10) Based on the lectures and the reading by Miller, which of the following statements is TRUE? a) Agriculture in the USA is characterized by low labour productivity. b) The bulk of cropland in the USA is used to grow vegetables and grains eaten by people, not for livestock feed. 0) Kwashiorkor, a protein deficiency disease, is linked to high fertility rates. d) All of the above. e) None of the above. 11) Bangladesh has a much lower GDP per cubic metre water than Germany because: a) Water productivity is higher in Bangladesh than in Germany. b) Agricultural economies have lower water productivity than service economics. 0) Germany produces higher value goods than does Bangladesh. (1) None of the above e) b and c 12) Which of the following statements is TRUE in relation to pricing: a) Full cost pricing will not provide incentives for clean manufacturing. b) The higher the price of water use, the lower the costs of water treatment are likely to be. c) A sales tax based on vehicle weight is likely to be just as effective in reducing vehicle emissions as a tax based on the emissions. d) The lower the price of waste disposal in a municipality, the greater the incentive to ship wastes to other municipalities. e) The higher the energy price, the lower the incentive to recover energy from landfill gas. 3 Version 1 Student Name ENVR 201 (01) Society and Environment Student Number 13) With respect to externalities, indicate which of the following statements is TRUE: a) Externalities are prone to occur in the case of common property resources. b) Externalities are said to occur when the benefits due to an activity are fully captured by the agent engaging in the activity. 0) The “free rider” effect causes excessive amounts of positive externalities to be produced. d) None of the above e) a and c 14) In the following table, Cell “D” contains: _ Excludable Non—excludable — — a) Private goods like food. b) Public goods like clean air. c) Common property goods like fisheries. d) Club goods. e) None of the above. 15) All other things being equal, higher opportunity cost of a resource to be used in a public project would: a) Increase the net benefits of the project. b) Reduce the total costs of the project. c) Increase the chances of the project being approved as a result of a cost-benefit analysis. d) a and c e) None of the above 16) Revealed preference approaches: a) Involve studying people’s willingness to pay for environmental goods, as revealed by their choices in real markets. b) Are influenced by the information provided to survey respondents. 0) Capture actual behaviour rather than intentions. d) a and c. e) a and b. ‘ 4 Version 1 Student Name ENVR 201 (01) Society and Environment Student Number 17) Contingent valuation approaches: a) Are used to value a “statistical life” by studying how much people pay for medical insurance. b) Capture actual behaviour rather than intentions. 0) Are prone to “strategic bias”. (1) Provide valid and reliable estimates of Willingness to pay. e) b and c 18) With respect to cost-benefit analysis, indicate which of the following statement(s) is or are true: a) In estimating the social benefit of a project, willingness to pay does not take consumer surplus into account. b) The “avoided cost” approach is used to value ecosystem services in monetary terms. 0) Existence value is the willingness to pay for preserving an environment on the chance that one will use it in the future. (1) b and c. 6) None of the above. 19) Based on the lectures on urbanization, indicate which of the following statements is or are TRUE: a) All other things being equal, a family would spend more on heating their home in an apartment than in a single detached home of the same size. b) As urban density decreases, waste production per capita reduces, all else remaining the same. 0) At low urban densities, low per capita consumption of transport energy can be achieved because public transit supply is viable. d) The cost of providing road and sewerage infrastructure for a given population would be higher at lower urban densities. 6) None of the above. 20) Indicate which of the following statement(s) characterize(s) urban environments in poor countries: a) High per capita energy consumption levels compared to cities in rich countries, and high use of low quality fiiels. b) High exposures and impacts, because of large populations and poor access to health care. 0) “Modern” risks superimposed on “traditional” risks. d) All of the above. e) b and c. *************** UI Version 1 Student Name ENVR 201 (01) Society and Environment Student Number Section 2: True/False Statements INSTRUCTIONS: On the computer form provided, indicate whether each of the following statements is true or false. Choose a) if true, and b) if false. Note that the questions in this section are numbered from 21-40, following on from the questions in the previous section. The value of each correct answer is 0.50 points (total of 10 points). 21) Populations stop growing when the replacement rate has been reached. a) True b) False 22) A population pyramid with a narrow base most likely suggests that the population is young and has considerable potential for future growth. a) True b) False 23) Resource scarcity gives rise to innovation and substitution. a) True b) False 24) The carrying capacity of an environment is not fixed because humans can trade and innovate to offset low natural productivity. a) True b) False 25) The effect of subsidies to fisheries is to increase the chance that inefficient fishers will stop fishing. a) True b) False 26) The extraction of juvenile (small size) rather than adult fish is likely to promote future fish productivity. a) True b) False 27) The industrial (manufacturing) sector accounts for the lowest gross use of water in Canada. a) True b) False 28) The level of secondary and tertiary treatment of water increased during the 19903 in Canada. a) True b) False 29) Most of the industrial agriculture globally is conducted on marginal lands. a) True b) False 30) Deposit refund systems are ineffective for hazardous wastes. a) True b) False 31) Each point on a supply curve shows the minimum price at which producers will be willing to supply an additional unit of a good. a) True b) False 32) When pollution costs are fully internalized, there is an incentive to invest in clean technologies that reduce pollution per unit output. a) True b) False 33) In marginal analysis of pollution control, the marginal benefit curve has the same shape as a demand curve. a) True b) False 34) Cost-benefit analysis tends to ignore the preferences of individuals in societal decision-making. a) True b) False 6 Version 1 Student Name ENVR 201 (01) Society and Environment Student Number 35) Bequest value is the value attached to preserving an environment so that we ourselves might enjoy it at a future date. a) True b) False 36) The human capital approach has been used to estimate the monetary value of human life. a) True b) False 37) In the World Bank study relating environmental performance with per capita income, carbon dioxide emissions per capita show an increasing trend with a rise in income. a) True b) False 38) The phenomenon of “distantiation” leads to better perception of biophysical limits. a) True b) False 39) Environmental externalities are likely to occur when the exclusivity of property rights is violated. a) True b) False 40) In relation to the “urban heat island” effect, air-conditioning serves as a negative feedback. a) True b) False *************** Section 3: Short Essays INSTRUCTIONS: There are three parts in this section, with three questions in each part. You are rcguired to answer a total of five Questions, by choosing at least one question, but no more than two Questions, from each of the three parts. Answer each question in the examination bookletgsl provided. Your answers should aim to be precise and clear. Focus on the specific issues raised by the question. The potential value of each answer is 12 points (60 points in all). The suggested length of your answer is approximately 150-250 words. Part A 1) According to Partha Dasgupta, “Parental demand for children rather than an unmet need for contraceptives in large measure explains reproductive behaviour in developing countries”. First, explain the various reasons why parental demand for children is caused and enabled in subsistence economies, drawing on Dasgupta’s article in the course-pack (60%). Secondly, discuss the implications of these reasons for bringing population growth under control without coercion (40%). 2) First, discuss the reasons why eliminating subsidies to fisheries is very difficult for communities and governments (75%). Next, discuss THREE distinct policy strategies not related to subsidies, for bringing global fisheries back to health (25%). l 3) Drawing on the relevant lecture, first discuss the major challenges likely to be encountered in feeding the rapidly growing global population sustainably (70%). Next, discuss the potential concerns relating to the “gene revolution” from a poor country perspective (3 0%). 7 Version 1 Student Name ENVR 201 (01) Society and Environment Student Number Part B 1) First, explain (rather than merely stating) three characteristics of “common property goods”, and under what conditions and Why such goods are likely to be susceptible to over-exploitation and the “social trap” phenomenon (50%). Next, explain with a help of a diagram the role of a pollution tax in internalizing environmental externalities (50%). Use examples if you wish. 2) First, discuss the reasons why municipal solid waste management is becoming a major policy challenge in Canada (50%). Next, discuss the rationale for a pay-as-you-throw (PAYT) system for household waste reduction, its potential advantages and shortcomings, and why it is important to ensure an optimum fee or charge (50%). Use examples if you wish. 3) First, briefly discuss how the built environment in cities can contribute to air and water pollution (20%). Then discuss why, notwithstanding this, it is human activity rather than the fact that it is happening in urban areas that is important from the point of View of environmental impacts (40%). Finally, discuss the reasons why cities are likely the optimal scale at which environmental problems may be addressed effectively (40%). Part C 1) With specific reference to the cost-benefit analysis related to arsenic in drinking water, reported in the course-pack reading by Harris, critically discuss the various sources of uncertainty in valuing policy benefits, and why they occur (75%). Then discuss the implications of these uncertainties in choosing an arsenic standard, and why, because of these uncertainties, the setting of such standards involves political debate and controversy rather than being capable of resolution based on “sound science and solid analysis” (25%). 2) The Contingent Valuation (expressed preference) approach assumes that analysts can find reliable and valid means to measure environmental values in monetary terms. Discuss, with examples to illustrate your points, the various reasons why this assumption may not be justified. 3) Critically discuss the propositions that “poverty causes environmental degradation, while wealth cures it” and that “richer is cleaner”, and the role of technology and trade in this context (75%). On the basis of this discussion, provide a critique of the I = PAT equation (25%). 8 Version 1 ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/13/2010 for the course ENVR ENVR 201 taught by Professor Madhav during the Fall '09 term at McGill.

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Exam 201 - Student Name ENVR 201 (01) Society and...

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