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Middy 2 - M ycophagous-an eater of fungi Xylophagus-an...

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Mycophagous- an eater of fungi Xylophagus- an eater of wood Rhizoshpere- a zone surrounding the roots of plants, usually richer in fungi and bacteria than elsewhere in the soil Combs- in a social hymenopteran nest, a layer of regularly arranged cells Mycotetes- A cell containing symbiotic microorganisms, scattered throughout the body, particularly within the fat body, or aggregated in organs called mycetomes Lotic- of flowing water Semi-aquatic - living in saturated soils, but not immersed in free water Open tracheal system -a gas-exchange system comprising trachea and tracheoles and with spiracular contact with the atmopshere Physical gills (plastron)- Air-water interface on an external surface of an aquatic insect, the site of gaseous exchange Neuston- The water surface Benthos- the bottom sediments of aquatic habitats and/or the organisms that live there. Melanism- darkening caused by increased pigmentation Economic injury level- the level at which economic pest damage equals the costs of their control Economic threshold- the pest density at which control must be applied to prevent the economic injury level being reached. Biological control- The human use of selected living organisms to control populations of plant or animal pest species. Plant resistance- a range of mechanisms by which plants resist insect attack Pest resurgence- The rapid increase in numbers of a pest following cessation of control measures or resulting from development of resistance and/or elimination of natural enemies Secondary pest outbreak- previously harmless insects becoming pests following insecticide treatment for a primary pest.
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Cross resistance- resistance of an insect to one insecticide providing resistance to a different insecticide Multiple resistance- the concurrent existence in a single insect population of two or more defence mechanisms against insecticide Metabolic resistance – the ability to avoid harm by biochemical detoxification of an insecticide Target-site resistance- Increased tolerance by an insect to an insecticide through reduced sensitivity at the target site. Juvenile hormone mimics- synthetic chemicals that mimic the effect of juvenile hormone on development ex. methoprene Chitin synthesis inhibitors - An insecticide that prevents chitin formation ex. Diflubenzuron BIOL 350- October 14 th , 2009 Chemoreceptors Insects smell and tases but all molecules must be in solution. Chemicals used for communication refered to as semiochemicals o Allelochemicals- communication between species o Pheromone-inter species form of communication- one bug produces chemical to affect behaviour of another rbug. Different types of pheromones: o Sex pheromones 1. Sex attraction pheromone (200-300 Da) volatile almost always secreted by females, have evertible pouches located on the abdomen, release the chemicals into the atmosphere and diffuse out forming a triangular structure called pheromonal plume
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2. Courtship pheromone usually produced by males. Example is the tiger moth found in South East Asia. When it is a larva it eats a lot of
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