Health%20Affairs%202006%20Milstien

Health%20Affairs%202006%20Milstien - M a r k e t Wat c h M...

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MarketWatch The Impact Of Globalization On Vaccine Development And Availability Investing in “weapons of mass protection” has payoffs throughout the world, in both developing and wealthy countries. by Julie B. Milstien, Miloud Kaddar, and Marie Paule Kieny ABSTRACT: Globalization is likely to affect many aspects of public health, one of which is vaccine-preventable communicable diseases. Important forces include increased funding initiatives supporting immunization at the global level; regulatory harmonization; wide- spread intellectual property rights provisions through the World Trade Organization agree- ments; the emergence of developing-country manufacturers as major players in vaccine supply; and the appearance of new communicable disease threats, including those poten- tially linked to bioterrorism. All of these forces can affect, either positively and negatively, the development and availability of vaccines. Harnessing these will be a challenge for policymakers and immunization stakeholders. [ Health Affairs 25, no. 4 (2006): 1061– 1069; 10.1377/hlthaff.25.4.1061] G lobalization can be defined as the “process of denationalization of markets, laws, and politics in the sense of interlacing peoples and individuals for the sake of the common good.” 1 Economic globalization, characterized by increasing cross-border flows of goods, services, capital, people, and information is a critical determi- nant of globalization’s impact on health. 2 There are many studies on the conse- quences of globalization on availability of pharmaceutical products. 3 This paper focuses specifically on the effects, both positive and negative, globalization has on development of and access to vaccines to prevent communica- ble diseases. First we provide examples of how globalization affects the dissemination and prevention of communicable diseases. We next illustrate the impact of vaccines on public health and provide an overview of the trends inthevaccinemarket .Weanalyzetheimpact of some of the forces generated by globaliza- tion on vaccine availability, and we conclude with some suggestions as to how to handle these forces in ways that will improve vaccine availability and thus public health. Globalization And Public Health n Patterns of communicable diseases. The experience of recent decades has clearly shown the impact of globalization on the dis- semination of communicable disease. The in- crease in air travel has resulted in the spread of malaria to a Geneva postal carrier, of polio- HEALTH AFFAIRS ~ Volume 25, Number 4 1061 DOI 10.1377/hlthaff.25.4.1061 ©2006 Project HOPE–The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc. Julie Milstien (milstien@medicine.umaryland.edu) is an adjunct associate professor at the Center for Vaccine Development, Department of Geographic Medicine, at the University of Maryland School of Medicine; she is based in Montpellier, France. Miloud Kaddar is a health economist in the Department of Immunization, Vaccines, and Biologicals, World Health Organization (WHO), in Geneva, Switzerland. Marie Paule Kieny is director of the WHO Initiative for Vaccine Research, also in Geneva.
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This note was uploaded on 02/13/2010 for the course ANT 4930 taught by Professor Young during the Spring '10 term at University of Florida.

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Health%20Affairs%202006%20Milstien - M a r k e t Wat c h M...

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