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Unformatted text preview: nefits . According to Richter  one of the most substantive losses resulting from the shift towards the partnership paradigm is the loss of distinction between different actors in the global health arena. UN agencies, governments, transnational corporations, their business associations and public interest NGOs are all called 'partner'. The realisation that these actors have different and possibly conflicting mandates, goals and roles has been lost. The inclusion of business as an integral part of public policy making may weaken the vital role of the public sector in norm- and standard setting and monitoring, as the Page 3 of 5
(page number not for citation purposes) Globalization and Health 2005, 1:6 http://www.globalizationandhealth.com/content/1/1/6 public sector has been made an equal partner with business, sharing a common purpose and tasks. The WHO collaboration with business has caused harm to the credibility of the WHO's normative functions [7,40-43]. The legally independent global PPPs are structured so that public bodies with normative functions hold seats in the policy-making bodies together with business representatives both at global and national levels. This 'forced marriage' within the legally independent PPPs may harm not only the credibility of the normative functions of the regulators, but also the normative functions as such. In GAIN and in the UNFPA private sector initiative, the normative bodies are directly requested for 'supportive environments' as regards regulation, taxes and tariffs . GAVI, GFATM and GAIN deal with essential health issues. Selected UN agencies (in the case of GAIN only one UN or other multilateral agency) that have mandates to deal with these health matters are invited to join their boards either as voting (GAVI and GAIN) or non-voting (GFATM) members, while industry and other private sector actors are included as full members at all levels of their structures [2,6]. The marginalisation of the UN in the structures of the legally independent global PPPs did not happen accidentally. The cautious approach of the WHO to integrating private industry into its activities has been reported as one of the main reasons for GAVI's construction as an independent legal body. Problems were encountered, for example, when issues of intellectual property rights and profits arose . According to Phillips , the USA opposed the running of GFATM by either the UN or the World Bank. The US also demanded that the fund set up a world-wide aid-delivery system instead of relying on established agencies, such as the UN and the World Bank. According to Stansfield et al.  many public sector leaders have raised the concern that in its eagerness to address market failures and pursue international public goods, PPPs are often structured so that the public sector absorbs the lion's share of the risks and costs, while the private sector absorbs a disproportionate share of the...
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This note was uploaded on 02/13/2010 for the course ANT 4930 taught by Professor Young during the Spring '10 term at University of Florida.
- Spring '10