RelativeResourceManager-3

RelativeResourceManager-3 - HEALTH POLICY AND ETHICS Ethics...

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January 2005, Vol 95, No. 1 | American Journal of Public Health Shaffer et al. | Peer Reviewed | Health Policy and Ethics | 23 HEALTH POLICY AND ETHICS Ethics in Public Health Research Global Trade and Public Health | Ellen R. Shaffer, PhD, MPH, Howard Waitzkin, MD, PhD, Joseph Brenner, MA, and Rebeca Jasso-Aguilar, MA Global trade and international trade agreements have trans- formed the capacity of govern- ments to monitor and to pro- tect public health, to regulate occupational and environmen- tal health conditions and food products, and to ensure afford- able access to medications. Pro- posals under negotiation for the World Trade Organization’s General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the re- gional Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) agreement cover a wide range of health services, health facilities, clini- cian licensing, water and sani- tation services, and tobacco and alcohol distribution services. Public health professionals and organizations rarely par- ticipate in trade negotiations or in resolution of trade disputes. The linkages among global trade, international trade agree- ments, and public health de- serve more attention than they have received to date. ( Am J Public Health. 2005;95:23–34. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2004.038091) GLOBAL TRADE AND international trade agreements have transformed governments’ ability to monitor and to protect public health (box p24). They have also restricted the capacity of government agencies to regu- late occupational and environ- mental health conditions and food products and to ensure affordable access to medications and water. Pending proposals cover a wide range of health services, health facilities, clini- cian licensing, and distribution of tobacco and alcohol. Public health organizations are only beginning to grapple with trade- related threats to global health, including emerging infectious diseases and bioterrorism. Al- though economic globalization has attracted wide attention, its implications for public health re- main poorly understood. In this article, we analyze key global trade issues that affect public health, briefly tracing the history of international trade agreements and describing the forces shaping agreements such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The recent shift to treating services as tradable commodities is of partic- ular importance; we analyze the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) as a case in point. We also discuss the impli- cations for public health of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) and the proposed Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) agreement. Although many agreements contain impli- cations for public health, as we summarize in Table 1 and the box on page 26, we emphasize those features of agreements cur- rently under negotiation that war- rant attention by public health practitioners and organizations. EMERGENCE OF
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This note was uploaded on 02/13/2010 for the course ANT 4930 taught by Professor Young during the Spring '10 term at University of Florida.

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RelativeResourceManager-3 - HEALTH POLICY AND ETHICS Ethics...

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