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Unformatted text preview: 10 THE LATE MIDDLE AGES 1300–1500 TEACHING STRATEGIES AND SUGGESTIONS The instructor can introduce the Late Middle Ages with a Standard Lecture that is organized as a Historical Overview, presenting the major milestones in the cultural sphere as well as the key political, economic, and social developments. With a Pattern of Change approach, the instructor can show the changes that occurred as High Gothic gave way to Late Gothic civilization; and a Slide Lecture can illustrate the accompanying stylistic shifts in the arts and architecture. In addition, the instructor can use the Reflections/Connections strategy to demonstrate that the change from High Gothic to Late Gothic was rooted in the period’s multiple calamities. Besides constituting the final phase of medieval civilization, the Late Medieval period also marks the first stirrings of the modern world. The best way to deal with this topic is to use a blend of the Spirit of the Age approach with the Comparison/Contrast technique, setting forth the death of the Middle Ages as the modern world struggles to be born. In this combined approach the instructor should concentrate on three major aspects of the emerging modern world: first, the shift from the medieval ideal of a unified Christian Europe to the modern reality of a system of rival states; second, a decline in the power of the church coupled with the rise of secular consciousness; and, third, the appearance of the painter Giotto, who set art on its modern path. A Slide Lecture is essential for understanding the radical nature of Giotto’s artistic achievements. If circumstances allow, the instructor can organize a Discussion on the Late Middle Ages as a transition period, encouraging students to consider what has been gained and what has been lost by the shift from medieval to modern times. LECTURE OUTLINE I. Historical Overview A. The “calamitous” fourteenth century B. Breakup of the unique culture of the High Middle Ages II. Hard Times Come to Europe A. Ordeal by plague, famine, and war 1. The plague a ) Its pattern and the death toll b ) Types of plague c ) Impact on culture 2. Famine a ) Patterns b ) Impact on society 3. War a ) Patterns b ) Impact on society and economics 161 B. Depopulation, rebellion, and industrialization 1. Depopulation a ) Reasons b ) Impact on society and economics 2. Rebellion a ) Patterns b ) Impact on society 3. Industrialization a ) Textiles b ) New industries C. The secular monarchies 1. France a ) Wars with England and Burgundy b ) Rise of modern France 2. England 2....
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