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Unformatted text preview: Standards and Dialects Standards Do You Speak American? Northern/Southern Varieties LIN 200 Language in United States Dr. JC Weisenberg Feb. 9th, 2010 Language vs. Dialect Language What’s the difference between a What the language and a dialect? language “A language is a dialect with an army language and a navy.” (Max Weinreich, and (Max Weinreich quoting a Bronx teacher) (Aronoff, quoting 2009) 2009) Aronoff, M. (2009) Language and group legitimization. Humanities Institute at Stony Brook, lecture [September 9, 2009. Language is a system system Phonology (sounds/ pronunciation) Grammar (word order, prefixes, suffixes) Lexicon (vocabulary) slang What we know about dialects Dialects have their own grammar Dialects Dialects are not just bad or wrong ways of Dialects are bad or wrong ways speaking; they are subject to grammatical rules jjust like any other variety of a language. rules ust In this way, dialects differ from broken language or an imperfectly learned second language or language. language. What we know about dialects What •Dialects show a speaker’s regional origin •There may be more than one dialect in one place •Dialects show a speaker’s social position •Speakers adjust their speech behavior to how they are spoken to •Dialects can be chosen •Speakers adjust their speech behavior to a particular social circumstance Language Subordination: reactions reactions How do speakers react to the subordination of their speech? subordination • • • • Linguistic insecurity Linguistic Resignation Accent reduction classes (Julia Roberts) Defiance, pride, solidarity •How should they react? Regional Dialects Regional Why do people speak differently as you move around the US? you • European settlement began as isolated European communities communities • Settlers brought their own distinct dialects and Settlers languages with them. languages American Dialect Regions American http://www.ling.upenn.edu/phono_atlas/NationalMap /NationalMap.html#Heading7 Major regional dialects of the United States Major New England - Noted for fronted /a/ in “car” and loss of postNoted vocalic /r/ in urban areas. Maine, MA, Rhode Island… The Mid - Atlantic (NYC, NJ) ‘non-rhotic’ or /r/-less dialect. Atlantic The South: ‘non-rhotic’ or /r/-less dialect, Noted for The less monophthongization of ‘ay’ /a / > /a:/ (Florida, SC, Virginia, /a:/ Mississippi, Georgia, Arkansas) Mississippi, The Midland (N. Midland & S. Midland): a residual domain with The much greater diversity, where most individual cities have developed much ped dialect patterns of their own. Pittsburgh, PA; St. Louis, Missouri. (N. dialect N. Midland: Ohio, Illinois, Southern Iowa)(S. Midland: Scotts-Irish Midland Ohio, Iowa)( Irish brought from PA into Southern Appalachia, picked up some Southern brought features before it spread westward to Kentucky & Tennessee) features The North: centered on Chicago, Illinois, the Great Lakes to upper The centered New York state. Michigan area. New The West: including California and the mid-west. Noted for The west. preservation of ‘post-vocalic’ /r/. Nevada, Oregon, Washington, etc. Major Regional Dialects Major http://www.ling.upenn.edu/phono_atlas/Nation http://www.ling.upenn.edu/phono_atlas/Nation alMap/NatMap1.html Lexical Variation Do you call it a pail or a bucket? pail or bucket Do you say to get a cold or catch cold get or catch Does the ‘s’ iin greasy sound like /s/ or n greasy sound /z/? /z/? Which of these patterns is Northern? Midland? http://www.hamline.edu/personal/aschramm/linguistics2 001/3dialect.html Northern vs. Midland Northern Midland: sack sack catch cold catch caught and cot do rhyme caught and do s in greasy sounds like z in in in breezy breezy bucket (or pail: N. Midland) bucket (or pail slick slick crawl crawl creek rhymes with peak (/krik/) creek rhymes In S. Midland: branch. In N. branch. Midland: /kr k/ Midland spigot or spicket spigot or spicket Northern: bag bag get a cold get caught and cot don't rhyme caught and don't s in greasy sounds like s in in greasy sounds in bussing bussing (*bucket – possibly for larger bucket possibly container) container) pail pail slippery slippery creep creep creek rhymes with pick creek rhymes /kr k/ faucet faucet New England /r/ New Where would we expect to find /r/-lless ess Where speech in New England? Along the coast or inland? or Mapping Dialect Boundaries Mapping isogloss: a geographic boundary line geographic delimiting the area in which a given linguistic feature occurs. linguistic http://www.ling.upenn.edu/~dinkin/TLN/map4.html Isogloss Isogloss For ‘r’ For dropping Modern Day Lexical Variation: soda vs. pop vs. coke soda vs. coke What do you call a carbonated beverage? http://www.popvssoda.com/countystats/total-county.html Discussion Discussion Why do dialect differences persist despite intense exposure to a national network standard? network What are the social consequences of changing the way you speak? Of not changing the way you speak? changing Examining a dialect: Examining Southern American English Some features of Southern American English (SAE) American How can we categorize the features of SAE? of • Phonology (pronunciation) • Grammar (word and sentence Grammar formation) formation) • Lexicon (vocabulary) SAE Pronunciation: vowels SAE Southern Shift Southern • merger of the / / and / / vowel sounds before and nasals (/n/ and /m/), e.g. pin/pen (// / is a high, front, lax ( vowel, whereas / / is a mid-front, lax vowel) vowel, is • /i/-/ / merger before /l/, e.g. still/steel. (These are both high, front vowels, but / / is lax) both is Monopthongization of /aI/ diphthong: Monopthongization • The diphthong /aI/ becomes monophthongized to a becomes monophthongized to single long vowel /a:/ before voiced consonants so that tide is /ta:d/ and wide is /wa:d/. tide and wide Southern Vowel Shift (SVS) Southern Researchers1 working on Southern American working dialects have noted a series of what appear to be distinguishing vowel shifts occurring in white Southern speech, referred to as the Southern Vowel Shift (SVS). Little is known about the ethnic distribution of the SVS, but preliminary work2 suggests the Southern African American work suggests community may not be participating in changes affecting white speech in the South. 1Labov, Labov, Yaeger, and Steiner 1972; Feagin 1986; Labov 1991, 1994; Bailey 1997; Thomas Yaeger and Feagin 1986; Labov 1991, 1997a, 1997b, 2001; Fridland 2000, 2001) Fridland 2 Thomas Thomas 1997b; Bailey and Thomas 1998; Thomas and Bailey 1998 SAE Pronunciation: consonants SAE ing > in’ ing • e.g. talkin’, walkin’ , singin’ e.g. talkin walkin singin Change of the /z/ sound in contractions to /d/ contractions • e.g. "wasn't" = “wudint” e.g. • doesn’t > “dudint” SAE: pronunciation SAE: The diphthongization of the traditional short diphthongization of front vowels as in the words: front pat, pet, pit pet pit These vowels develop a glide. The vowel glide The moves up from original starting position to /j/, and then back down to schwa. and pat pat pet pit /æ/ → [æj ] / / → [ j ]; pet //→[j ] [p j t] Stress Stress For many Southern speakers, some nouns are stressed on the first syllable rather than the second as in Standard English (SE). (SE). e.g. pólice, cément, béhind, Détroit. e.g. SAE: pronunciation SAE: The English of the Deep South is historically ‘non-rhotic’ (/r/-lless): it drops ess): the sound of final /r/ before a consonant or a word boundary, so that guard sounds guard sounds similar to god and sore llike saw. god and sore ike saw The more northern, inland, and Appalachian varieties of SAE are ‘rhotic’ (have /r/). SAE: grammar SAE: Use of double modals ("might could", Use ", "might should", "might would", etc.) "might e.g. A: Can you help me clean the gutters? B: I might could help you out. B: might Use of "y'all" as the second person Use as plural pronoun (less commonly "you-all") plural SAE Grammar SAE Use of "fixin' to" as an indicator of immediate Use as future action. future • “I’m fixin’ to visit my sister. fixin Use of the word "done" iin place of "already" or n Use "did." "did." • "We done read it." (We already read it). "We done Multiple Negation Multiple He ain’t never done no work to speak of. ain done no There ain’t never none on that shelf. ain I can’t hardly make it out. can Ain’t no chicken that can’t get out of no Ain chicken can get no coop. Shakespearean English: I cannot goe no further. cannot Multiple Negation in other languages languages No hay nadie. No hay nadie There isn’t nobody. nobody. There isn’t anyone. Il n’a pas rien dit. He didn’t say nothing. He didn say nothing. He didn’t say anything. No se nada. se nada I don’t know nothing. don I don’t know anything. SAE: lexicon SAE: Use of "over yonder" in place of "over there," e.g. "the house over yonder” over All carbonated beverages called "coke". All Little gray bugs called "roley-poleys" rather than "pill bugs" or Little rather "woodlouse" "woodlouse" “grocery cart” called a "buggy” The small freshwater crustacean in lakes and streams as a "crawdad," "crawfish," or "crayfish.” "crawdad," Trends in SAE Trends /r/-lessness iis rapidly disappearing from almost all s Southern accents, to a greater degree than the other traditionally /r/-lless dialects of the East Coast such as ess traditionally New York and Boston. New Low back merger: merger of vowels in cot/caught iis cot/caught s beginning to appear in parts of the south (“awh” iis a s beginning mid-back vowel, whereas the “ah” in /k t/ is a lowmid back is back vowel) Influx of northerners affecting urban areas. Influx Younger southerners giving up distinctive dialect features. features. Language Ideologies Language Widely held ideas and sets of beliefs about languages and their speakers. languages The idea that certain dialects (regional, social, or even foreign) sound dumb or dumb or uneducated, but others sound quaint or uneducated but quaint or rustic, and others sophisticated. rustic and sophisticated Regional, social and foreign accents accents What do particular accents say to us about the speakers of What those accents? those http://gameads.gamepressure.com/tv_game_commercial http:// .asp?ID=3495 http://gameads.gamepressure.com/tv_game_commercial http:// .asp?ID=3353 http://gameads.gamepressure.com/tv_game_commercial http:// .asp?ID=3493 http://dsc.discovery.com/fansites/mythbusters/videogalle http://dsc.discovery.com/fansites/mythbusters/videogalle ries/promo_02.html http://www.leftlanenews.com/2006/02/22/vw-strikeshttp://www.leftlanenews.com/2006/02/22/vw again-un-pimp-my-ride-videos/ What meanings lie behind different accents in films? different German? French? Middle Eastern/Arabic? Middle Chinese? Japanese? South Asian/Indian? Judging Accents Judging http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5zW8oA2AEio “We are sinking!” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3UgpfSp2t6k “21 Accents” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Oprr47CEw5E&feature= http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Oprr47CEw5E&feature= related related “Hispanic accent” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zqohw8nR6qE “African American English http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iIijBLnIKDI “Comedian referring to Chinese accents” ...
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