lecture 01 2010

lecture 01 2010 - 1 Energy: Conservation and...

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1 Energy: Conservation and Interconversion The topic of energy has become a central focus of the entire globe. Issues of production, availability, and environmental impacts are all under active discussion: Consider the following items that have appeared in the news in the past weeks and months: The price of oil has gone as high as $147 per barrel (July ’08), to about $83 now (January ’10) Gasoline prices have gone from around $4.10 to as low as $1.50, and now they are about $2.80, and rising again. Concern over global warming is at an all-time high Recent studies have demonstrated unequivocally that without new technology and new sources of energy that are not fossil fuel based, the entire world can expect a significant reduction in the quality of life within 50 years. We hear phrases like “green energy” and “alternative energy”. What do these terms mean? How can we apply chemical principles to understand these issues? Chemical principles come into play in answering the following questions: What constitutes an energy source? What is a fuel? How does energy utilization affect the environment, both in terms of production and utilization? A diagram helps here: Let’s divide the universe into the System (the part we focus on) and the Surroundings (everything else). Let’s put the fuel in the system. When combustion occurs, the intrinsic bond making and bond breaking takes place in the system. The system is changed. If the energy of the reactants is different from that of the products, then the change in the energy of the system may be cause heat to cross the boundary between system and surroundings. SYSTEM SURROUNDINGS
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2 This interaction between the system and the surroundings is a process. The process of heat (flow) balances the energy change of the system – the changes in the molecular identity. In addition to intrinsic properties of the molecules of reactants and products (system properties),
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lecture 01 2010 - 1 Energy: Conservation and...

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