What analytical techniques can be used to determine the purity of a
given sample of baking soda, and, if there are impurities, determine the identity of these
The purpose of this experiment is to determine the purity and the chemical nature
of the impurities that are found in the baking soda sample produced by the Athenium
Baking Soda Company.
Sodium hydrogen carbonate, or sodium bicarbonate, NaHCO
commonly known as baking soda, is an economical, natural compound that is a common
replacement for expensive and environmentally harmful cleaning products.
variety of uses include deodorizer, household cleanser, fire extinguisher, fruit cleaner,
hand and face wash, heavy-duty dish cleaner, tooth and denture cleaner, for cooking, and
for acid indigestion. Since we actually consume baking soda for most of the uses, it is
vital for the quality and purity of it to be precise, so it does not harm us.
One way baking soda is created is through the reaction of crystalline ammonium
hydrogen carbonate and brine (highly concentrated salt water).
The reaction follows:
(Eq. 1) NH
Brine contains high concentrations of sodium chloride, as well as potassium chloride,
lithium chloride, and calcium chloride.
Even after the NaHCO
is dried and filtered,
these containments (KCL, LiCl, CaCl
) may still be present as impurities. Most
manufacturing companies employ quality control scientists and technicians to analyze
their products for purity, quality of workmanship, structural flaws, composition, and
longevity. Quality control consists of periodic inspections designed to maintain quality