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Experiment 15-2

Experiment 15-2 - Experiment 15 Quality Control for the...

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Experiment 15: Quality Control for the Athenium Baking Soda Company: A Self-Directed Experiment By: Ines Banic, Jessica Bookout, Maida Huskic, Neil Patel November 3, 2009
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Introduction: Central Question: What analytical techniques can be used to determine the purity of a given sample of baking soda, and, if there are impurities, determine the identity of these impurities? The purpose of this experiment is to determine the purity and the chemical nature of the impurities that are found in the baking soda sample produced by the Athenium Baking Soda Company. Sodium hydrogen carbonate, or sodium bicarbonate, NaHCO 3 , commonly known as baking soda, is an economical, natural compound that is a common replacement for expensive and environmentally harmful cleaning products. Its wide variety of uses include deodorizer, household cleanser, fire extinguisher, fruit cleaner, hand and face wash, heavy-duty dish cleaner, tooth and denture cleaner, for cooking, and for acid indigestion. Since we actually consume baking soda for most of the uses, it is vital for the quality and purity of it to be precise, so it does not harm us. One way baking soda is created is through the reaction of crystalline ammonium hydrogen carbonate and brine (highly concentrated salt water). The reaction follows: (Eq. 1) NH 4 HCO 3(s) + NaCl (aq) NaHCO 3(aq) + NH 4 Cl (aq) Brine contains high concentrations of sodium chloride, as well as potassium chloride, lithium chloride, and calcium chloride. Even after the NaHCO 3 is dried and filtered, these containments (KCL, LiCl, CaCl 2 ) may still be present as impurities. Most manufacturing companies employ quality control scientists and technicians to analyze their products for purity, quality of workmanship, structural flaws, composition, and longevity. Quality control consists of periodic inspections designed to maintain quality
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during the manufacturing process. This experiment will be conducted in order to test the Athenium Baking Soda for impurities and other flaws. This experiment is considered a quality control experiment because it consists of inspections to maintain quality during manufacturing in order to have a pure substance to sell to the public. Experimental Techniques: The first experiment that we will perform is titrations to determine the concentration of NaHCO3. A titration is a process in which a small amount of a known solution is added to a certain volume of a solution of unknown concentration until the stoichiometry for that reaction is reached. We must know the quantity of the known solution in order to find the concentration of the unknown. Concentration is the amount of solute in a given solvent. Concentration is generally given in the form of either molarity or percent by mass. (Eq.2) Molarity (M) = Moles of Solute/Liter of Solution Percent by mass is the mass in grams of solute per 100 grams of solution.
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