L4 Pipelining - Computer Science 230H Pipelining Prepared...

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Unformatted text preview: Computer Science 230H Pipelining Prepared by Michael Jack -Fall 2007 Pipelining 2 References • The information and figures for the following slides were prepared from the following source: – Patterson, D., and Hennessy J., Computer Organization and Design, 3rd edition, 2005 – Stallings, W., Computer Organization and Architecture: Designing for Performance 7 th edition, 2006 – HircockB., Computer Science 230 Course Notes Pipelining 3 Objectives •Describe processor organization. •Describe register organization. •Analyze instruction cycle. •Introduce instruction pipelining. •Discuss pipelining strategies and limitations. Pipelining 4 Introduction •A processor includes both user-visible registers and control/status registers. –User register may be GPRsor have a special use. –Control and status registers are used to control the operation of the processor. •Processors make use of instruction pipelining to speed up execution. –Pipelining involves breaking up the instruction cycle into a number of separate stages that occur in sequence •Fetch instruction, decode instruction, determine operand addresses, fetch operands, execute instruction, and write operand result. –The occurrence of branches and dependencies between instructions complicates the design and use of pipelines. Pipelining 5 Processor Organization •Every processor is required to do be able to do the following: –Fetch instruction –read it from memory (register, cache, main memory.) –Interpret instruction –decode it to determine what action is required. –Fetch data –(if requested) read data from memory or an I/O module. –Process data –(if requested) perform an arithmetic or logical operation on data. –Write data -(if requested) write data to memory or an I/O module. •To accomplish all of the above processors needs a small internalmemory. Pipelining 6 Processor Organization (cont) •The ALU does the actual computation or processing of data. •The CU controls the movement of data and instructions. •Registers are the minimal temporary internal storage. Pipelining 7 Processor Organization (cont) •ALU operates only on data in the internal processor memory. •Internal CPU bus transfers data between the various registers and the ALU. Pipelining 8 Register Organization •Registers form the highest level of the memory hierarchy –Small set of high speed storage locations. –Temporary storage for data and control information. •Two types of registers –User-visible •May be referenced by assembly-level instructions and are thus “visible”to the user. –Control and status registers •Used to control the operation of the CPU. •Most are not visible to the user. Pipelining 9 User-Visible Registers •General categories based on register function –General-purpose •Can be assigned a variety of functions. –Data •These registers only hold data. –Address •These registers only hold address information. •E.g. GPRs, segment pointers, stack pointers, index registers.GPRs, segment pointers, stack pointers, index registers....
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L4 Pipelining - Computer Science 230H Pipelining Prepared...

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