L2 ISA1 - Computer Science 230H Instruction Set...

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1 ISA Computer Science 230H Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) Prepared by Michael Jack Fall 2007 Slides set 1
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2 ISA References The information and figures for the following slides were prepared from the following sources: Patterson, D., and Hennessy J., Computer Organization and Design, 3rd edition, 2005 Stallings, W., Computer Organization and Architecture: Designing for Performance 7 th edition, 2006 Hircock B., Computer Science 230 Course Notes
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3 ISA Types of Chips in Use 1400 1300 1200 1100 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 1998 2000 2001 2002 1999 Other SPARC Hitachi SH PowerPC Motorola 68K MIPS IA-32 ARM
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4 ISA Introduction • The operation of a processor is determined by the instructions it executes. • If you use a high-level programming language, very little of the underlying machine is visible. • Implementing the processor is a task that in large part involves implementing the computer instruction set. – Should be functionally complete. – Should permit the user to formulate any high-level data processing task. • Instruction Set Architecture is one boundary where the computer designer and the computer programmer can view the same machine. • Programming in assembly language makes you being aware of the: – Register and memory structure. – The types of data supported by the machine. – The functioning of the ALU.
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5 ISA Evolution of Instruction Sets • Design decisions must take into account: – Technology – Machine organization – Programming languages – Compiler technology – Operating systems • The design decisions in turn influence these.
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6 ISA Instruction Elements • The essential elements of a computer system instruction are: – Opcode – Source and destination operand references – Next instruction reference
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7 ISA Instruction Elements • Opcode - specifies the operation to be performed: – Arithmetic – Logic – Movement of data between: • Two registers • Register and memory • Two memory locations – Input/Output – Control
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8 ISA Instruction Elements • Source and destination operand references – specify the input and output locations for the operation: – The location of operand data might be: • Register • Memory location – The type of data might be: • Address • Number • Character • Logical data
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9 ISA Instruction Elements • Stack – A commonly used architectural feature in processors – Used to: • Manage procedure calls and returns • Alternative form of addressing memory – Basic operations: • PUSH • POP – Typically implemented to grow from higher addresses to lower addresses
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10 ISA Evolution of Instruction Sets Single Accumulator (EDSAC 1950) Accumulator + Index Registers (Manchester Mark I, IBM 700 series 1953) Separation of Programming Model from Implementation High-level Language Based Concept of a Family (B5000 1963) (IBM 360 1964) General Purpose Register Machines Complex Instruction Sets Load/Store Architecture RISC (Vax, Intel 8086 1977-80) (CDC 6600, Cray 1 1963-76) (Mips,Sparc,88000,IBM RS6000, . . .1987+)
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L2 ISA1 - Computer Science 230H Instruction Set...

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