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Chapter9Transparencies - Chapter 9 Notes CHAPTER 9 MEMORY...

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Chapter 9 Notes CHAPTER 9 – MEMORY MEMORY : the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information. I- THE PHENOMENON OF MEMORY Flashbulb memory : A clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event. Information processing Encoding : The processing of information into the memory system (e.g., extracting meaning). Storage : The retention of encoded information over time. Retrieval : The process of getting information out of memory storage. Sensory memory : The immediate, initial recording of sensory information in the memory system. Short-term memory : Activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten. Working memory is a similar concept (to short-term memory) that focuses more on the processing of briefly stored information (RAM); visual and verbal. Long-term memory : The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. II – ENCODING Automatic processing : Unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings. Space , time , and frequency often encoded automatically. Effortful processing : Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort. Rehearsal : The conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage. Ebbinghaus retention curve – time to relearn nonsense syllables as a function of # of rehearsals initially. The amount remembered depends on the time spent learning . After learning, additional rehearsal ( overlearning ) increases retention. 1
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Chapter 9 Notes Spacing effect : The tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long- term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice. Next-in-line effect : Worst memory for person who precedes you in introductions.
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