Chapter10Overview - Myers PSYCHOLOGY ThinkingandLanguage...

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Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY Chapter 10 Thinking and Language  
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Thinking Cognition mental activities associated with thinking,  knowing, remembering, and communicating  Cognitive Psychologists study these mental activities concept formation problem solving decision making judgment formation
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Thinking Concept   mental grouping of similar objects, events,  ideas, or people Prototype mental image or best example of a category matching new items to the prototype provides a  quick and easy method for including items in a  category (as when comparing feathered creatures  to a prototypical bird, such as a robin)
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Thinking Algorithm methodical, logical rule or procedure  that guarantees solving a particular  problem contrasts with the usually speedier–but  also more error-prone--use of  heuristics
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Thinking Heuristic simple thinking strategy that often  allows us to make judgments and  solve problems efficiently usually speedier than  algorithms   more error-prone than  algorithms
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Thinking Unscramble S P L O Y O C H Y G Algorithm all 907,208 combinations Heuristic throw out all YY combinations other heuristics?
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Thinking Insight sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a  problem contrasts with strategy-based solutions Confirmation Bias tendency to search for information that confirms one’s  preconceptions Fixation inability to see a problem from a new perspective impediment to problem solving
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The Matchstick Problem How would you  arrange six  matches to form  four equilateral  triangles? 
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The Three-Jugs Problem Using jugs A,  B, and C,  with the  capacities  shown, how  would you  measure out  the volumes  indicated? 
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