Chapter10Overview

# Chapter10Overview - Myers PSYCHOLOGY ThinkingandLanguage...

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Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY Chapter 10 Thinking and Language

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Thinking Cognition mental activities associated with thinking,  knowing, remembering, and communicating  Cognitive Psychologists study these mental activities concept formation problem solving decision making judgment formation
Thinking Concept   mental grouping of similar objects, events,  ideas, or people Prototype mental image or best example of a category matching new items to the prototype provides a  quick and easy method for including items in a  category (as when comparing feathered creatures  to a prototypical bird, such as a robin)

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Thinking Algorithm methodical, logical rule or procedure  that guarantees solving a particular  problem contrasts with the usually speedier–but  also more error-prone--use of  heuristics
Thinking Heuristic simple thinking strategy that often  allows us to make judgments and  solve problems efficiently usually speedier than  algorithms   more error-prone than  algorithms

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Thinking Unscramble S P L O Y O C H Y G Algorithm all 907,208 combinations Heuristic throw out all YY combinations other heuristics?
Thinking Insight sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a  problem contrasts with strategy-based solutions Confirmation Bias tendency to search for information that confirms one’s  preconceptions Fixation inability to see a problem from a new perspective impediment to problem solving

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The Matchstick Problem How would you  arrange six  matches to form  four equilateral  triangles?
The Three-Jugs Problem Using jugs A,  B, and C,  with the  capacities  shown, how  would you  measure out  the volumes  indicated?

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