Chapter10Review - Chapter 10 Review Chapter 10, Thinking...

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Chapter 10 Review Chapter 10, Thinking and Language Thinking Our cognitive system receives, perceives, and retrieves information, which we then use to think and communicate, sometimes wisely, sometimes foolishly. This chapter has so far explored how we form concepts, solve problems, and make judgments and decisions. Concepts Concepts simplify and order the world by organizing it into a hierarchy of categories. Concepts often form around prototypes, or best examples of a category. Matching objects and ideas with prototypes is an efficient way of making snap judgments about what belongs in a specific category. Solving Problems When faced with a novel situation for which no well-learned response will do, we may use such strategies as algorithms and heuristics. Sometimes the solution comes in a flash of insight. We do, however, face obstacles to successful problem solving. The confirmation bias predisposes us to verify rather than challenge our hypotheses. And fixations, such as mental set and functional fixedness, may prevent our taking a needed fresh perspective on a problem. Making Decisions and Forming Judgments Our use of heuristics, such as representativeness and availability, provides highly efficient but occasionally misleading guides for making quick decisions and forming intuitive judgments. Our tendencies to seek confirmation of our hypotheses and to use
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Chapter10Review - Chapter 10 Review Chapter 10, Thinking...

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