Chapter11NarrativeSummary

Chapter11NarrativeSummary - Chapter 11 Summary CHAPTER 11...

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Chapter 11 Summary CHAPTER 11 (SUMMARY): INTELLIGENCE Overview Modern intelligence testing began more than a century ago in France when Alfred Binet developed questions that helped predict children’s future progress in the Paris school system. Lewis Terman of Stanford University used Binet’s ideas to develop the Stanford-Binet intelligence test. German psychologist William Stern derived the formula for the famous intelligence quotient, or IQ. Today, intelligence is generally considered to be the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations. Psychologists debate whether intelligence is one general ability or several specific abilities. While a certain level of intelligence is necessary for creativity, beyond that level, the correlation is weak. Psychologists have linked people’s intelligence to brain anatomy and functioning as well as to cognitive processing speed. Modern aptitude and achievement tests are widely accepted only if they are standardized, reliable, and valid. Aptitude tests tend to be highly reliable but they are weak predictors of success in life. One way to test the validity of a test is to compare people who score at the two extremes of the normal curve: the challenged and the gifted. Studies of twins, family members, and adopted children point to significant genetic determinants of intelligence scores. These and other studies also indicate that environment significantly influences intelligence test scores. Environmental differences are perhaps entirely responsible for racial gaps in intelligence. Psychologists debate evolutionary and cultural explanations of gender differences in aptitudes and abilities. Aptitude tests, which predict performance in a given situation, are necessarily “biased” in the sense that they are sensitive to performance differences caused by cultural experiences. However, the major tests are not biased in that they predict as accurately for one group as for another. The Origins of Intelligence Testing The origins of intelligence testing; The Stern formula for the intelligence quotient. The modern intelligence-testing movement started more than a century ago when French psychologist Alfred Binet began assessing intellectual abilities. Together with Theodore Simon, Binet developed an intelligence test containing questions that assessed mental age and helped predict children’s future progress in the Paris school system. The test sought to identify French school children needing special attention. Binet and Simon made no assumption about the origin of intelligence. Lewis Terman believed that intelligence was inherited. Like Binet, he believed that his test, the Stanford-Binet, could help guide people toward appropriate opportunities. William Stern derived the intelligence quotient, or IQ, for Terman’s test. The IQ was simply a person’s mental age divided by chronological age multiplied by 100. During the early part of the twentieth century,
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Chapter11NarrativeSummary - Chapter 11 Summary CHAPTER 11...

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