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Chapter11Review - Chapter 11 Review Chapter 11 Intelligence...

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Chapter 11 Review Chapter 11, Intelligence The Origins of Intelligence Testing Among the most controversial issues in psychology is the debate over intelligence testing: whether tests can measure and quantify a person’s abilities and how widely the results can be used fairly. More than a century ago in France, Alfred Binet started the modern intelligence-testing movement by developing questions that helped predict children’s future progress in the Paris school system. Lewis Terman of Stanford University revised Binet’s work for use in the United States. Terman believed his Stanford-Binet could help guide people toward appropriate opportunities, but more than Binet, he believed that intelligence was inherited. During the early part of the twentieth century, intelligence tests were sometimes used in ways that, in hindsight, even their designers regretted—to "document" a presumed innate inferiority of certain ethnic and immigrant groups. What Is Intelligence? It is misleading to reify concepts such as "intelligence" and "giftedness"—to regard these abstract concepts as if they were real, concrete things. To most psychologists, intelligence is defined as the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and adapt to new situations. Is Intelligence One General Ability or Several Specific Abilities? Psychologists agree that people have specific abilities, such as verbal and mathematical aptitudes. However, they debate whether a general intelligence (g) factor
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