Lecture 16 - The Periodic Table Why is it called the...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: The Periodic Table Why is it called the periodic table? What does the word periodic mean? Typically, periodic refers to repetitive events within a time period: monthly, daily, yearly. A periodical is published at regular intervals. Physicists calculate the period of a pendulum--the length of time to go through one cycle. In the chemical periodic table, there is no time period, but rather a number of elements. When placed in order of their atomic numbers, we return to an element that is in many respects similar, but not identical to a previous element. The similar elements are placed in columns, known as groups or families. The rows of the table are called periods. The number of elements in a period (row) varies. There are only two elements in the first period, H and He. The second and third periods have 8 elements each, filling the s and p blocks. The fourth and fifth period have 18 elements each, each period having an additional 10 elements filling the d block (transition elements). The 6th and 7th periods have 32 elements each, each of these periods having an additional 14 elements filling the f block (lanthanides and actinides), with this block of elements listed separately on the bottom of the periodic table. How did Mendeleev’s periodic table differ from the modern periodic table? The elements in Mendeleev’s table were listed in order of atomic weights rather than atomic numbers. Atomic numbers were unknown in 1871. None of the internal structure of the atom was known in 1871. Representative elements and transition metals were lumped together in Mendeleev’s table. Noble gases are completely absent--they were not known in 1871. The first noble gas discovered in 1898 was argon. Gaps were left in Mendeleev’s chart for elements as yet undiscovered in 1871. Mendeleev made predictions for the properties of Sc, Ga, Ge, which turned out to be remarkably accurate once these elements were discovered. Mendeleev discovered the periodic table pattern on the basis of chemical and physical properties of the elements. Combining ratios with hydrogen and oxygen were included in the groups (columns) of his initial tables, showing how elements in the same group combined with oxygen and hydrogen in the same ratio. Today, we have much more knowledge of the underlying basis of the periodic table. Every element in a column (group or family) has the same valence electron configuration. Ionization Energy Ionization energy is defined as the energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom. X(g) + energy → X + (g) + e- Ionization energy data has been measured for all atoms, and this data provides valuable information on atomic properties and the periodic table....
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 02/15/2010 for the course CHEMISTRY 160:161 taught by Professor Paulkimmel during the Fall '09 term at Rutgers.

Page1 / 12

Lecture 16 - The Periodic Table Why is it called the...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online