Chapter 11 - Leadership
Leaders can make a difference! One study, for example, tracked the relationship
between net profit and leadership in 167 companies from 13 industries. It also
covered a time span of 20 years. Higher net profits were earned by companies
with effective leaders. A more recent study examined the relationship between
leadership and performance within major-league baseball teams. The sample
consisted of all managers who directed a major-league baseball team during any
season from 1945 to 1965. The researchers then tracked the performance of
their teams up to the year the manager retired. Using a sophisticated measure of
managerial effectiveness, results demonstrated that effective managers won
more games with player performance held constant than did less effective
managers. Leadership makes a difference!
Leadership means vision, cheerleading, enthusiasm, love, trust, verve,
passion, obsession, consistency, the use of symbols, paying attention
as illustrated by the content of one's calendar, out-and-out drama (and
the management thereof), creating heroes at all levels, coaching,
effectively wandering around, and numerous other things.
A Working Definition
is the process of influencing others in a group.
It primarily deals with influencing behavior, attitudes, or actions of
It also entails using influence for a purpose.
It is a two-way street. As leaders influence subordinates, so
subordinates influence leaders.
Leaders versus Managers:
A Key Distinction - at Least in Theory
1. A leader creates mission and strategy.
2. A manager implements that mission and strategy.
3. These distinctions are sometimes blurred in practice. Some managers
are leaders; there just isn't a clear linkage between the two roles.
The Trait Approach: Having the "Right Stuff"
Early researchers formulated the great person theory--that leaders possess key
traits that make them different from other people. The key elements are:
key distinguishing traits.
the traits are stable over time.
it is true across time and groups.
The concept fit informal experience, but no research would verify the theory.
Stogdill's and Mann's Findings
Based on his review, Stogdill concluded that five traits tended to
differentiate leaders from average followers. They were (1) intelligence, (2)