Chapter 4 Outline

Chapter 4 Outline - Chapter 4: Job Attitudes Brief history...

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Chapter 4: Job Attitudes Brief history of job attitudes o Scientific management – Frederick Taylor Time-motion studies attempted to streamline jobs by identifying the unnecessary or ineffective work behaviors. Founded upon four premises Finding the one best way to perform a job. Simplifying the job Systematic personnel selection and placement to match the best worker to each job. Strict division of labor between management and workers. Monetary incentives to attract and motivate workers to perform optimally. Assumed that if workers were provided with a decent job and wages linked to productivity, they would strive for peak performance. o Hawthorne Studies Illumination studies The earliest studies, not formally considered part of the Hawthorne studies. Productivity did not decline relative to illumination. In one group productivity continued to increase with decreasing illumination. Relay assembly test room studies (rest pause experiments) Goal was to isolate and investigate the work behavior of small groups of workers. Formal purpose was to explore the effects of work pauses on employee fatigue and productivity. Productivity increased regardless of the length of the break, and regardless of the length of the workday. Bank wiring room studies Social pressure evident – group exerted pressure on any worker who did not comply with the group’s standard. Overall conclusions were that employee attitudes and morale and the influence of the informal work group were major determinants of productivity. o The Hoppock Study Interested in applying scaling techniques to the study of job satisfaction. Discovered that approximately 88% of those sampled were satisfied with their jobs. Most satisfied workers were in the professional, managerial, and executive occupations. This research is significant for two reasons Developed one of the first contemporary job attitude surveys His results have been replicated repeatedly. Theories of Job Satisfaction o Two-Factor Theory Brayfield and Crockett’s review of the literature Found that no relationship existed between satisfaction and performance Herzberg et al’s review Found that there was a significant relationship between job satisfaction and performance. Believed that satisfaction and dissatisfaction were different concepts due to their relationships with other variables. Herzberg proposed the motivator-hygiene theory (2 factor theory) This theory assumes everyone has two types of needs o Hygiene needs: Include factors extrinsic to the work itself, such as the work environment o Motivator needs: Include intrinsic factors, such as achievement, recognition, and work activities.
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When hygiene needs are fulfilled, the worker is not dissatisfied. The fulfillment of the hygiene needs does not produce a state of satisfaction, but rather a state of neutrality. When motivator needs are fulfilled, the worker is satisfied; when they are not
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Chapter 4 Outline - Chapter 4: Job Attitudes Brief history...

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