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thermo_ism_ch08

# thermo_ism_ch08 - Chapter 8 The Relative Stability of...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 8: The Relative Stability of Solids, Liquids, and Gases P8.1) a) By what amount does the chemical potential of water exceed that of ice at –5.00ºC? ( 29 ( 29 ( 29 ( 29 2 2 –1 –1 –1 –1 o , , –1 at constant 70.0 J K mol 48.0 J K mol 5.00 C 110 Jmol m m m H O l H O s G S T P G S S T μ μ ∆ = ∆ = -∆ ∆ ∆ = ∆ = -- ∆ =-- = o o b) By what amount does the chemical potential of water exceed that of steam at 105.00ºC? ( 29 ( 29 ( 29 ( 29 2 2 –1 –1 –1 –1 , , –1 70.0 J K mol 188.8 J K mol 5.00 C 594 J mol m H O l H O g G S S T μ ∆ = ∆ = -- ∆ = -- × = o o o P8.2) a) 195.41 K, 1050 Pa single phase gas b) 195.41 K, 6077 Pa triple point: gas, liquid, solid c) 237.51 K, 101325 Pa single phase liquid d) 420 K, 130 × 10 5 Pa single phase supercritical fluid e) 190 K, 6077 Pa single phase solid P8.3 ) a) The temperature and pressure are greater than the values for the triple point, –56.6ºC and 5.11 atm. 8-1 Chapter 8/The Relative Stability of Solids, Liquids, and Gases b) The temperature is greater than the critical temperature, 31.0ºC. c)The system is at the triple point, –56.6ºC and 5.11 atm. d) The temperature is slightly greater than the triple point value of –56.6ºC. e) The pressure is below the triple point pressure value of 5.11 atm. P8.4) a)95.39ºC < T < 115.18ºC b) T > 115.18ºC, P > 3.2 × 10 –5 atm c) P = 3.2 × 10 –5 atm, T = 115.18ºC d) T > 153ºC, P > 1420 atm e)115.21ºC > T > 95.39ºC P8.5 ) 3 –1 , 3 –1 –1 –1 –1 1 1 ln ln At the normal boiling point, = 101325 Pa. 24.94 10 Jmol 24.94 10 Jmol 8.314 Jmol K 8.314 Jmol vaporization f m i f i vaporization m f vaporization f m i i b normal P H P R T T H T P H R RT P P T ∆ = -- ∆ = ∆- × = × × –1 5 3 –1 , tan 3 –1 –1 –1 –1 –1 271.8 K 101325 ln K 201K 2232 At the standard boiling point, = 10 Pa. 24.94x10 Jmol 269.6 K 24.94 10 Jmol 100000 8.314 Jmol K ln 8.314 Jmol K 201K 2232 b s dard P T = - × = = × ×- × The result for the normal boiling point is ~8 K higher than the value tabulated in Table 8.2. The most probable reason for this difference is that the calculation above has assumed that ∆ H vaporization is independent of T . P8.6) 3 –1 , 3 –1 –1 –1 –1 1 1 ln ln At the normal boiling point, = 760 Pa. 40.656 10 Jmol 40.656 10 Jmol 8.314 Jmol K 8.314 Jmol K vaporization f m i f i vaporization m f vaporization f m i i b normal P H P R T T H T P H R RT P P T ∆ = -- ∆ = ∆- × = × × –1 354.4 K 380 Torr ln 373.15K 760 Torr = - × 8-2 Chapter 8/The Relative Stability of Solids, Liquids, and Gases P8.7 ) For the transformation C 2 H 5 OH ( l ) → C 2 H 5 OH ( g ) ( 29 ( 29 2 5 2 5 ( ) 2 5 2 5 3 –1 3 –1 –1 –1 ( ) 3 ln C H OH, C H OH, ln 167.9 10 J mol + 174.8 10 Jmol 2.785 8.314 J mol K 298 K 0.0617 bar 0....
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thermo_ism_ch08 - Chapter 8 The Relative Stability of...

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