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9-12-07 311C F07 L6OL - Introduction to Macromolecules...

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Introduction to Macromolecules Structure and Function
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Macromolecules Large molecules built from smaller molecules Most macomolecules are polymers that are built from monomers Polymer: long molecules consisting of many similar building blocks Four main classes of large biological molecules Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic acids
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Macromolecules Polymer- long molecules consisting of many similar building blocks Monomer- small molecules that are the building blocks of a polymer Carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleics are polymers Lipids are
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monomers Carbohydrates : sugar/monosaccharide Proteins : amino acids Nucleic acids : nucleotides, 4 in DNA, 4 in RNA, 20 amino acid
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Making and Breaking Polymers Chemical mechanisms used to make and break polymers are basically the same for all macromolecules
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Making Polymers Condensation reaction (dehydration reaction) Lose water Condensation reaction – two molecules join and form one, lose the other one Monomers join together via condensation reactions called dehydration reaction (a) Dehydration reaction in the synthesis of a polymer HO H 1 2 3 HO HO H 1 2 3 4 H H 2 O Short polymer Unlinked monomer Longer polymer Dehydration removes a water molecule, forming a new bond Figure 5.2A
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Breaking Polymers
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