lecture06-slides - 9/14/09 ! 1 ! 9/14/09 ! ! Tinbergens 4...

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9/14/09 1
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9/14/09 2 Proximate Causation 1. Mechanisms “How?” Questions - Physiological - Cognitive 2. Ontogenetic Processes Ultimate Causation 3. Effects on Fitness “Why?” Questions 4. Evolutionary Origins Tinbergen’s “4 Types” of Questions
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9/14/09 3 (Behaviors) (Behaviors) (Behaviors) Character mapping is a way to infer evolutionary origins of behaviors Assumptions of the “Character Mapping” Approach 1. Characters that match the hypothesized ancestral state are historical legacies (phylogenetic inertia) rather than recent reversions. 2. The hypothesized evolutionary history requiring the fewest changes through time is the most “parsimonious” and thus the most likely history.
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9/14/09 4 Hypotheses on the same level of analysis are true alternatives , whereas hypotheses on different levels of analysis are complementary and not mutually exclusive. An answer at one level of analysis does not supercede an answer at another level of analysis (mechanisms are not more important than Ftness
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lecture06-slides - 9/14/09 ! 1 ! 9/14/09 ! ! Tinbergens 4...

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