Nuke 200 Lecture 1 - NUCL 200 Introduction to Nuclear Engineering Prof I Jovanovic Spring 2010 Lecture 1 Nuclear Engineering Nuclear engineering is

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Unformatted text preview: NUCL 200 Introduction to Nuclear Engineering Prof. I. Jovanovic Spring 2010 Lecture 1 January 11, 2010 Nuclear Engineering Nuclear engineering is the endeavor that makes use of radiation and radioactive material for the benefit of mankind. (Lamarsh) Nuclear engineering is the application of the breakdown of atomic nuclei and/or other sub-atomic physics, based on the principles of nuclear physics. It includes, but is not limited to, the interaction and maintenance of nuclear fission systems and components— specifically, nuclear reactors, nuclear power plants, and/or nuclear weapons. The field may also include the study of nuclear fusion, medical and other applications of (generally ionizing) radiation, nuclear safety, heat/thermodynamics transport, nuclear fuel and/or other related (e.g., waste disposal) technology, nuclear proliferation, and the effect of radioactive waste or radioactivity in the environment. (Wikipedia) A key difference between atomic and nuclear processes Atomic Nuclear Electricity demand Fossil fuels, emissions “Stabilization wedges” Nuclear as a percentage of gross electricity generation Nuclear generation avoids 1.1 million tons of nitrogen oxide and 3.3 million tons of sulfur dioxide annually in the U.S. Commercial nuclear power Nuclear Power Plants Nuclear electricity generation (terawatt-hours) United States France Japan Germany Russia United Kingdom Ukraine Canada 780.1 415.5 313.8 162.3 130 81.1 73.4 71 Power applications: nuclear fission Nuclear reactor simulation sims.php?sim=Nuclear_Physics Power applications: nuclear fusion Magnetic confinement: ITER Inertial confinement: National Ignition Facility Nuclear propulsion Naval nuclear propulsion system Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) USS Nautilus (1955) Yamal icebreaker Charles de Gaulle nuclear aircraft carrier Displacement 87,300 tons • Arktika class atomic icebreaker ◦ 2×171MW nuclear reactors Nuclear powered naval vessels facts ◦ Length 150 m, Displacement 23,455 tons ◦ v bl o ic es t ct Nuclear driAenevtehrelachfahesnor th pole ◦ Maximum fuel use is 300g of heavy uranium isotopes • NimperClass Nuclear Powered Aircraft Carriers itz day ◦ 2×194MW Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) ◦ The ship has enough electrical generating power to supply electricity to a city of 100,000 ◦ Displacement 87,300 tons • Arktika class atomic icebreaker ◦ 2×171MW nuclear reactors NUCL 200/Spring 2007/Bougaev – p. 7/16 Nuclear◦dMvein vehfiuees se css 0contf.)heavy uranium isotopes ri ax mum cl l u fa i t 3 ( 0g o per day • Nuclear submarines ◦ 2×171MW nuclear reactors ◦ Length >150 m, Displacement 48,000 tons ◦ Able to reach the nor th pole ◦ 100-120 days in an autonomous regime ◦ Speed up to 35 knots submerged ◦ Length 150 m, Displacement 23,455 tons ◦ Able to reach the nor th pole NUCL 200/Spring 2007/Bougaev – p. 7/16 Nuclear driven vehicles facts (cont.) • Nuclear submarines Radioisotope Thermoelectric Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) • Heat produced from natural Generator (RTG) alpha par ticle decay of Plutonium (Pu-238) 87.7-year half-life electricity through a thermocouple device • Heat is directly transformed into • Source of heat + a system for • Multi-Hundred Watt RTG conver ting the heat to electricity • RTGs were carefully designed and extensively tested navigation and lighthouses • Powering beacons ↑Cour tesy of NASA↑ 238 P u(f , α) 234 U NUCL 200/Spring 2007/Bougaev – p. 9/16 Applications of RTGs RTG Applications • Space missions • Strontium-90 core RTG powered lighthouses • Remote Arctic radio transmitters. SNAP-28 Apollo RTG Cassini ↑Cour tesy of NASA↑ NUCL 200/Spring 2007/Bougaev – p. 10/16 238 P u(f , α)234 U Production of isotopes Radioactive isotopes can be produced by nuclear reactions in reactors, accelerators, or by using ultraintense lasers Applications: •Diagnostic kits for biological research •Molecular biology examinations •Smoke detectors Food Irradiation Food irradiation • 30+ countries use radiation to eliminate foodborne pathogenes 60 Co • Isotopic source is used for irradiation • Bacterial levels reduced >100,000-fold) Irradiated Foods largest use, targets insects; targets insects targets Trichinella 40% of this har vest spoils, delays ripening targets bacterial contamination such as Salmonella. targets Salmonella & E. coli NUCL 200/Spring 2007/Bougaev – p. 13/16 Spices Flour Pork Fruits & Vegetables Poultr y Red Meat NUCL 200/Spring 2007/Bougaev – p. 11/16 Radioactive tracing Radioactive Tracing • Track leakage from piping systems • Radioactive tracers can be used to measure the speed of chemical processes wear resistance be tracked • Tracers are used for determining hardness and • The movement of a substance through a natural system can • Radioactive tracers are used to monitor the rate of engine wear Red Meat targets Salmonella & E. coli NUCL 200/Spring 2007/Bougaev – p. 13/16 Neutron activation analysis Neutron Activation Analysis • A nuclear process used for determining cer tain concentrations of elements bombarded with neutrons • Specimen is placed into a suitable irradiation facility and • Does not destroy the sample NUCL 200/Spring 2007/Bougaev – p. 14/16 Medical applications Medical Applications Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) • Neutron beam interacts with boron injected to a patient • Ionize the cells to destroy them: 10 B , (n, α) reaction • α par ticles destroy malignant cells → 11 B → 7 Li + α • Direct internal and external radiation • Radioactive iodine is widely used to treat thyroid cancer 10 B ∗ NUCL 200/Spring 2007/Bougaev – p. 15/16 Homeland security Nuclear science using ultraintense lasers Fast ignition Radioisotope production ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/16/2010 for the course NUK 200 taught by Professor Ivanjovanavic during the Spring '10 term at Purdue University-West Lafayette.

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