2009 Genetic engineering in the food supply

2009 Genetic engineering in the food supply - Genetic...

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Genetic Engineering in the Food Supply General objectives of genetic engineering related to foods: Increase supply , variety, or quality of foods by means difficult or impossible to achieve via conventional plant or animal breeding techniques Modify microorganisms to assist in improving food safety or producing products useful in food production, processing , or waste management
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Specific goals of genetic manipulation: Improve quality of foods Appearance Texture, taste Nutritional value Increase yields of plant or animal foods Increase pest resistance Increase pesticide / herbicide tolerance of plants Increase drought tolerance Decrease fat content (meats) Reduce waste processing costs
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Genetic manipulation : Altering the genetic composition of an organism for a prescribed purpose     Cross breeding Genetic engineering   Cross-breeding : > 10,000 yrs old, beginning with efforts to domesticate wild plants, animals Selects beneficial inheritable traits from naturally- occurring genetic diversity Used successfully in both plant & animal foods
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Genetic Inheritance Genotype : Gene composition of an organism, totality of potential traits Phenotype : Expressed traits of an organism   e.g. tomato : color texture (hard vs soft) shape taste (glucose, sucrose, acid content) germination time, ripening time   Phenotype is determined by the extent to which each gene is expressed (may vary over time within an individual organism)
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Limitations of cross- breeding : Can access only the diversity within closely -related species than can be cross-bred Success depends on those phenomena that regulate the inheritance of genetic trails Undesirable traits can be inherited along with specific desirable traits (not selective) Slow--often 5-10 yrs required for success; limited by generation time of species
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Genetic engineering (recombinant DNA technology): Seeks to create new genotypes by selective modification of the genome Potentially:
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2009 Genetic engineering in the food supply - Genetic...

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