2009 Meat, fish, poultry, eggs

2009 Meat fish, - Thought Question Why is it that a small change in process temperature can have a large impact on required thermal process time

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Unformatted text preview: Thought Question Why is it that a small change in process temperature can have a large impact on required thermal process time ? Commodities (continued) Meat, Fish, Poultry & Eggs Trends in U.S. Meat & Poultry Consumption (Largest change is in consumption of chicken) Nutritive Issues: Meats What do meats provide that plant foods do not? Heme iron More balanced proteins (amino acid composition) What do meats NOT provide? Carbohydrates Fiber Muscle Structure Muscle fibers are interspersed with connective tissue proteins: collagen & elastin (not shown) largely collagen Contraction and relaxation of sarcomere Collagen: Connective tissue protein Most abundant protein in animal kingdom Post-slaughter changes in meat • Reduction pH ~7.0 to ~5.5 due to anaerobic glycolysis (lactic acid formation from glycogen) • Rigor mortis (fiber contraction); 24-48 hr • Relaxation of rigor (2 - 9 days) rigor Tenderness relaxation Days at 35 F Phenomena occurring during aging of beef and other muscle foods • • • • • Relaxation of rigor mortis Protein hydrolysis (collagen) Microbial surface growth Dehydration Some lipid oxidation Increased tenderness Grading of Beef Relationship between Marbling (intra-muscle fat content), Maturity of animal, and Carcass quality grade Retail grades: Prime, Choice Shelf Life of Raw Chicken & Beef Major Quality Factors in Fresh Meats Color Bacterial counts shelf life of 5-6 days at 2C * Effect of storage temperature on growth of spoilage bacterial in ground beef Recommended after-purchase storage times for uncooked meats, poultry Product Poultry Beef, veal, pork and lamb Ground meat and ground poultry Storage Times After Purchase 1 or 2 days 3 to 5 days 1 or 2 days Fresh variety 1 or 2 days meats (liver, tongue,brain, kidneys,heart,chitte rlings) Cured ham, cookbefore-eating 5 to 7 weeks Sausage from 3 to 5 weeks to pork, beef or turkey (uncooked) BfPdc m it e ruub S ot es beef Composition of Foods Search the USDA National Nutrient Database fo NUTRIENT NUTRIENT DATA LABORATORY Enter up to 5 keywords which best describe the food item. To further limit the search, select a specific Certain codes can also NUTRIENT DATA number (the USDA 5-digit Nutrient Databank identifier); the be searched: NDB LABORATORY URMIS code). Search the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Enter up to 5 keywords which best describe the food item. To further limit the search, select a specific Food Group. Certain codes can also be searched: NDB number (the USDA 5-digit Nutrient Databank identifier); the USDA commodity code; and the URMIS number for s He Keyword(s): URMIS code). lp Keyword(s): Select Select Food Group: He lp Select Select Food Group: To view reports on foods by single nutrients, such as calcium or niacin, go to Nutrient Lists. Use these links to access or SR21 documentation. Use these links to access SR21 datasetsSR21 datasets or SR21 documentation. To view reports on foods by single nutrients, such as calcium or niacin, go to Nutrient Lists. http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp Meat Composition Q: What is the composition of beef? (a seemingly simply question) Beef 495 entries in USDA food comp database Cut ? (sirloin, flank, chuck, round, ground, ….. …..) Grade ? (USDA Prime vs Choice) Trimmed (of fat) ? partially trimmed, untrimmed Raw vs cooked ? How cooked? Broiled, stewed, roasted, ….. Refuse: 3% (Connective tissue) Beef composition Refuse: 4% (Bone and connective tissue) Common Name: Beef Medallions, Filet Mignon, URMIS #2201 Common Name: Sirloin steak, Sirloin strip, URMIS #2237 NDB No: 13927NDB No: 13932 (Nutrient valuesto 1/8” exterior fat, broiled (Nutrient values and trimmed andedible portion) edible portion) Choice, weights are for weights are for Tenderloin Nutrient Proximates Water Energy Energy Protein Nutrient Proximates Water Energy Energy Protein g kcal kJ g g g 51.84 g 308 kcal 1289 kJ 25.26 g 22.21 g 1.16 g Units Top sirloin Number Value per Std. Number Std. Value per Unitsof Data Error of Data 100 grams 100 Error Pointsgrams Points 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 56.81 0 257 0 1073 0 26.80 0 15.75 0 1.10 0 0.00 0 0.0 0 0.00 0 10 0 0 10 10 10 0 0 0 0.922 0 0 0.248 0.959 0.037 0 0 0 Total lipid (fat) Total lipid (fat) Ash Ash Carbohydrate, by difference by difference 0.00 Carbohydrate, g g Fiber, total dietary g 0.0 Fiber, total dietary g Sugars, total Minerals Calcium, Ca Iron, Fe Sugars, total Minerals Calcium, Ca Iron, Fe mg mg 8 mg 3.15 mg g 0.00 g 0 0 18 0 1.81 0 0 0 0 0 Beef, meat / 20% fat, raw eef,cooking on composition meat / 20% fat, patty, cooked, broiled ground, 80% lean ground, 80% lean of meats EffectBofSearch New Search New Refuse: 0% Refuse: 0% Common Name:Common Name: hamburger, ground chuck hamburger Ground beef:weights are for edible (20% fat) portion) 80% lean portion) NDB No: 23573 (Nutrient values and weights are for edible NDB No: 23572 (Nutrient values and Raw Nutrient Proximates Water Energy Energy Protein Total lipid (fat) Ash Nutrient Proximates Water Energy Energy Protein Ash g kcal kJ g g 61.94g kcal 254 kJ 1062 17.17g 20.00g 0.84g 0.0g 0.00g Units Broiled Number Number Value per Std. Value per Std. Units Data of Data of 100 grams Error 100 grams Error Points Points 72 0 0 72 72 72 0 0 0 56.08 0.179 2710 11320 25.75 0.172 17.820 1.00 0.024 0.000 0.00 0.000 72 0 0 72 72 72 0 0 0 0.249 Due to loss of 0 water 0.223 0.205 0.017 0 Total lipid (fat) g Carbohydrate, byCarbohydrate, by difference 0.00g difference g Fiber, total dietary Fiber, total dietary g Sugars, total Minerals Calcium, Ca Iron, Fe Sugars, total Minerals Calcium, Ca Iron, Fe mg mg mg 18 mg 1.94 g Loss of fat 0 depends on 0 cooking method 0 36 36 24 2.031 2.48 0.049 0.049 36 36 2.313 0.067 0.067 New Search Beef composition Beef, meat / 95% lean meat / 5% fat, patty, Beef, ground, 80% leanground,20% fat, patty, cooked, broiled cooked, broiled New Search Refuse: 0% Refuse: 0% Ground beef Common Name: hamburger patties, broiled Common Name: hamburger, ground chuck NDB No: 23573 NDB No: values and weights are for edible portion) edible portion) (Nutrient 23558 (Nutrient values and weights are for 80% lean 20% fat 95% lean 20% fat Nutrient Proximates Water Energy Energy Protein Ash Nutrient Proximates Water Energy Energy Protein Ash Units Number Number Value pernits Value per Std. of Data Std. U of Datagrams 100 Error 100 grams Error Points Points g kcal kJ g g g 56.08 kcal 271 kJ 1132 g 25.75 17.82 g 1.00 g 0.0 g 0.00 g 72 0 0 72 72 72 0 0 0 66.03 0.249 171 0 717 0 26.29 0.223 6.55 0.205 0.017 1.06 72 0 0 72 72 72 0 0 0 0.537 0 0 0.384 0.442 0.025 0 0 0 Total lipid (fat) Total lipid (fat) g Carbohydrate, by difference g Carbohydrate, by difference 0.00 g Fiber, total dietary g Fiber, total dietary Sugars, total Minerals Calcium, Ca Iron, Fe 0.00 0 0.0 0 0.00 0 Sugars, total Minerals Calcium, Ca Iron, Fe g mg mg 24 mg 2.48 mg 36 36 2.313 7 0.067 0.067 2.83 36 36 3.996 0.108 0.108 Meats: Beef, pork, sheep, goats “Red” meats vs “white” meats: “Red” meats: High myoglobin content High myoglobin fibers: “slow twitch” continuous operation high oxygen demand (same applies to poultry & fish) tuna chicken breast beef chicken thigh Processed Meats: Cured meats •Bacon, luncheon meats, ham, hot dogs, corned beef, etc • Key ingredients: •Processing: grinding, forming, smoking, heating (137-175 F) (Require refrigeration) Functions of nitrite in cured meats • Inhibits C. botulinum growth in interior 2 (low O tension) • Fixes myoglobin color to pink-red (color formation accelerated and maintained by erythorbate) • Inhibits lipid oxidation by complexing double bonds i Nitrite + secondary amines nitrosamines Caution: n unsaturated fatty acids Basis of recommendation to limit consumption of nitrite-cured products (some are carcinogenic in some species) Reaction inhibited by ascorbic acid (vit C) Note reduced shelf life, more stringent storage conditions Fermented dry & semi-dry sausages Lactobacillus added sugars lactic acid (tangy flavors) Fermented either prior to or after stuffing Dried, aged with or without smoking Do not require heat processing or refrigeration Long shelf life due to low Aw and pH summer sausage pepperoni Fish Classifications Finfish (fresh water and marine) Bivalve mollusks (oysters, clams, mussels, scallops) Crustaceans (lobster, shrimp, crabs, crayfish (fresh and marine Characteristics : Fat content Low-moderate total fat content Low saturated fat content (in contrast to most meats) Moderate – high ω -3 fatty acid content Low carbohydrate High protein content (dry wt basis) More perishable than most meats, poultry (shorter shelflife) Fish (cross section) White muscle Dark muscle Mixed white, dark Bone Fat Skin Why are fish flaky? Segmented organization of fish muscle Segmentation facilitates heat-tail flexibility (cool) Less than most meats at 16 C Very polyunsaturated lipids: fish oil fatty acids n­3 (ω ­3) fatty acids found in fish Susceptible to oxidative rancidity, particularly as free fatty acids 3 20:5 ω -3 Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) 22:6 ω -3 3 Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) ω -3 fatty acid content of various fishes 18:3n-3 22:5n-3 ( g / 100 g ) 22:6n-3 Beef < 0.01 < 0.01 Enzymatic (bacterial) formation of volatile amines in fish products volatile, “fishy” volatile In fish muscle non-volatile volatile Shelf lives (days) and relative rates of spoilage (RRS) of seafood products stored at different temperatures 0°C shelf life Crab clawa Salmonb Sea breamc Packed codd) 10.1 11.8 32.0 14 RRS 1 1 1 1 5°C shelf life 5.5 8.0 6.0 RRS 1.8 1.5 2.3 10°C shelf life 2.6 3.0 8.0 3.0 RRS 3.9 3.9 4.0 4.7 4.7 Source: FAO Fish Quality (con’t) U.S. : No inspection & grading system analogous to that for meats Requirement for HAACP system for fish processors 21 CFR 123 "Procedures for the Safe and Sanitary Processing and Importing of Fish and Fishery Products" that requires processors of fish and fishery products to develop and implement Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) systems for their operations. Surimi products Texturized fish protein imitation crab imitation shrimp Surimi fish paste Poultry Products The origin of refrigeration? (and who said research was easy !?) Poultry Products Chicken Turkey Duck Goose Emu Quail White meat, dark meat White meat, dark meat Dark meat Dark meat Dark meat Dark meat Chicken Eggs Meats: Beef, pork, sheep, goats “Red” meats vs “white” meats: “Red” meats: High myoglobin content High myoglobin fibers: “slow twitch” continuous operation high oxygen demand (same applies to poultry & fish) tuna chicken breast beef chicken thigh Food composition (con’t) Nutrient Nutrient Chicken, broilers or fryers, dark meat, meat only, raw umber Raw vs roasted chicken: Value per alue umber NStd. peralue per Number dark meat per light alue Std.per 100 g) meatV ( Number Std. V N vs V NutrientNutrient Units Units Units Units 100 grams of Data Error of Data of Data of Data 100 100 Error 100 grams Errorgrams grams Points Points Points Points Raw Roasted Proximates Proximates Water dark Proximates Proximates Water g 75.99 Water g kcal Energy Energykcal 125 Energy kJ 523 Energy kJ Protein g 20.08 Protein g light 74.86 25 g 114 0 kcal 477 0 kJ 23.20 25 g 1.65 25 g 0.98 25 g 0g 0.0 0g 0.00 dark 00 kcal 0 kJ 0 026g .161 024g .031 light 16 0.394 00 00 16 0.269 16 0.183 16 0.029 00 00 00 173 0 724 0 Water 0.23 16 026g 63.06 64.76 .263 205 0 858 0 Energy Energy Energy Energy Protein Protein 026g 27.37 30.91 .136 0.207 16 Total Total lipid (fat) lipid (fat) Total lipid (fat)lipid (fat) g Total g 4.31 Ash g 0.94 Ash g Ash Ash Fiber, total dietary dietary g Fiber, total g Fiber, total 0.0 Fiber, total dietary dietary Sugars, total Sugars, total MineralsMinerals Calcium,Calcium, Ca Ca Iron, Fe Iron, Fe Carbohydrate, by difference g 0g Carbohydrate, by difference by difference 0.00 Carbohydrate, by Carbohydrate, g 0.00 difference 0 g0 0 g0 0 g0 0.08 4.51 9.73 16 0.024 1.02 1.02 16 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 Sugars, g Sugars, g 0.00 total total Minerals inerals M mg Calcium, Ca mg Calcium, Ca 12 mg mg 1.03 Iron, Fe Iron, Fe 24 12 mg 24 0.73 mg 024 .624 mg 024 0.028 .028 mg 015 .617 16 15 0.03 1.06 1.33 16 0 16 .6 0.041 0.041 16 Cholesterol Magnesium, 80 Mg mg 58 mg 93 27 85 16 16 http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp Egg Structure Egg composition * Triglyceride Phospholipid Cholesterol g g mg 3.5 1.5 210 * 50% saturated fats Detection of egg defects using “candling” Blood spot Bloody white Poorly defined yolk Egg quality-Spread and Height Haugh Units USDA grading of eggs Modification of egg composition by altering feed composition e.g. vitamin E content, fatty acid composition CONCLUSIONS: Infrequent egg consumption does not seem to influence the risk of CVD in male physicians. In addition, egg consumption was positively related to mortality, more strongly so in diabetic subjects, in the study population. Proteins as Gelling, Texturizing Agents Gelatin Product of hydrolysis of collagen, a connective tissue protein Collagen > 140 F H20 gelatin Thermo-reversible gelling properties Tofu Cooked, gelled soy proteins Not thermally reversible Surimi Texturized fish protein (white, high water content species) Pigmented with natural or artificial colors Current Issues: Animal foods Ethics California Proposition 2 (2008, passed) Requires that all farm animals, "for all or the majority of any day," not be confined or tethered in a manner that prevents them from lying down, standing up, turning around or fully extending their limbs without touching another animal or an enclosure such as a cage or stall. California egg producers may be unable to continue operating ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/16/2010 for the course NS 3450 at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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