Sex%20and%20Gender%20pres%201 - Sex and Gender Sex A...

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Unformatted text preview: Sex and Gender Sex A beginning Nature vs Nurture Nature • Is the way we behave male or female a Is result of nature – biological or nurture – environmental? environmental? • Assigned gender – Based on anatomical appearance • Sex – the maleness or femaleness of an individual the (biological influence) (biological XY XX • Gender – non-physical self, individual’s masculinity and femininity (social influence) femininity Masculinity and Femininity Masculinity • Sexes seen as polar opposites in Sexes traditional Western view, e.g. “opposite sex” sex” • Different qualities associated with Different different genders different • Sexism • Some qualities are biologically based, Some some culturally based some • Masculinity - having qualities appropriate to having or usually associated with a man • Femininity - the quality or nature of the Femininity female sex Merriam-Webster online dictionary Merriam-Webster • Gender Identity – individual’s perception as masculine or feminine perception – Examples of gender identity • How you feel male or female • Transgender/transsexual – gender identity is different from their biological sex from • Sex roles – behavioral patterns defined by society – Strong biological connotations Gender-Roles Gender-Roles • Gender-role stereotype: – A rigidly-held oversimplified belief concerning all rigidly-held males or all females males • Gender-role attitude: – The belief one has for self and others concerning The what’s appropriate for male or female traits what’s • Gender-role behavior: – Activities or behaviors a person engages in as a Activities female or male female • Strong social connotation • Sex-typing – specific attitudes, values and behaviors society considers sex appropriate appropriate – example because a woman gives birth she example is seen as the most likely caretaker is • Intersex – possesses varying amounts of male and female biological characteristics due to hormonal imbalances experienced parentally. experienced • Sexual Orientation – sexual preferences of an individual for an intimate partner. intimate • Gender schema theory – The Gender cognitive organization of others using the gender-based categories of masculinity and femininity masculinity – Children organize through labeling. – Around age 3 will label themselves as boy Around or girl or – Children then behave in a manner that Children conforms to adults’ worldview conforms Gender Theory Gender • What is our relationship between our What biological sex as male or female and our gender role as masculine or feminine? gender • Do we act the way we act because our Do gender role is bred in us or because of socialization? socialization? • Gender Theory developed as a field in the Gender ’80s and ’90s to explore the role of gender in society society Gender Theory Gender • Seeks to understand society through Seeks understanding how its organized by gender gender • Views gender as a basic element in Views social relationships social – Examines socially-perceived differences Examines between genders that are used to justify unequal power relationships unequal Gender Theory in Psychology Gender • In psychology, gender theory focuses on: – How gender is created and what its purposes are – How specific traits, behaviors, and roles are How defined as male or female defined – How gender creates advantages and How disadvantages disadvantages • Gender theory rejects the idea that gender Gender differences are primarily biologically-driven differences • Operates from a social-constructivist Operates framework framework Theories of Socialization Theories • Social learning theory • Cognitive development theory Cognitive Social Learning Theory Theory • Emphasizes consequences as shaping Emphasizes gender related behavior gender • Cognition: Mental processes such as Cognition: evaluation and reflection evaluation – Includes ability to use language – Anticipate consequences – Modeling Cognitive Development Theory Cognitive • Focuses on children’s active Focuses active interpretation of gender messages at various developmental stages various • Argues that after age 6 or 7, motivation Argues to act like one’s gender is primarily internal, and that gender-role behavior is intrinsic is Social Construction Theory Social • Gender expression is an outcome of – Power – Language – Meaning • Relationship to sexual orientation – Women – Men Gender-Role Learning: Childhood and Adolescence Childhood • Parents as socializing agents – Manipulation – Channeling – Verbal appellation – Activity exposure – Connections between sons and mothers – Ethnic groups Gender-Role Learning: Childhood and Adolescence Childhood • Teachers as Socializing agents • Peers as socializing agents – Play – Approval – Perceptions – Females are more common – Bias in presentation of topics • Media Gender Schemas: Exaggerating Differences Differences • Interrelated ideas which help Interrelated information processing information • Cognitive organization of world by Cognitive gender gender • Emphasize dichotomy • Minimize valuing of the individual Contemporary Gender Roles Contemporary • • • • Women’s roles have changed Men’s roles have changed Must include diverse groups Egalitarian approach to gender roles Traditional Male Gender Role Traditional • Aggressiveness • Emotional Emotional toughness toughness • Independence • Feelings of Feelings superiority superiority • Decisiveness • • • • Power orientation Competitiveness Dominance Violence Traditional Male Sexual Scripts: Zilbergeld Zilbergeld – Men should not have or express certain Men feelings feelings – Performance is the only thing that counts – The man is in charge – A man always wants sex and is ready for it – All physical contact leads to sex – Sex equals intercourse – Sexual intercourse leads to orgasm Traditional Traditional Female Gender Role • There are striking ethnic differences in There female role female – American middle-class Whites: women as American wives and mothers. Recently includes work outside the home – African Americans: more egalitarian roles African for men and women – Latinas: women subordinate to men out of Latinas: respect; Gender role affected by age Traditional Female Sexual Scripts: Barbach Scripts: • • • • • • • • Sex is good and bad Sex It’s not okay to touch yourself “down there” Sex is for men Sex Men should know what women want Men Women shouldn’t talk about sex Women Women should look like models Women are nurturers: they give, men receive Women There is only one right way to have an There orgasm Changing Gender Roles Changing – Egalitarian position – Androgyny: flexibility in gender roles, Androgyny: combining elements of each traditional role combining • Sexual expression is positive • Sexual activities involve a mutual exchange Sexual of erotic pleasure of • Sexuality is equally involving, and both Sexuality partners are equally responsible partners • Legitimate sexual activities are not limited to Legitimate intercourse but also include masturbation and oral-genital sex oral-genital • Sexual activities may be initiated by either Sexual partner partner • Both partners have a right to experience Both orgasm, whether through intercourse, oralorgasm, genital sex, or manual stimulation • Non-marital sex is acceptable within a Non-marital relationship context relationship Contemporary Sexual Scripts Contemporary Androgyny Androgyny • Unique combination • Combination or instrumental and Combination expressive traits expressive • Difficulties with expression and Difficulties expectation expectation When Sex is Ambiguous When • Intersexuality • Transexuality • Transgenderism Intersexuality Intersexuality • Describes people who possess Describes mixtures of male and female genitalia or reproductive physiology reproductive • Prevalence ranges from .0128% to Prevalence 1.7% of population. Known until recently as “hermaphrodites” recently • Shrouded in secrecy by families and Shrouded medical establishments in the past medical Intersexuality Intersexuality • • • • Hermaphrodites: Old terminology Ambiguous genitals: 1/2000 births Blended gonads or both gonads One ovary and one testis, or testes One containing ovarian tissue containing – Known until recently as “hermaphrodites” Chromosomal Anomalies: Turner Syndrome Syndrome • Females who lack a chromosome: XO Females rather than XX rather • Occurs in 1/1666 live births • Female external appearance • No ovaries • Hormonal therapy • Assisted fertility Chromosomal Anomalies: Klinefelter Syndrome Klinefelter • Males who have extra X chromosomes: Males XXY, XXXY, or XXXXY rather than XY XXY, • Occurs in 1/1000 live births • Variable effects; many men never Variable diagnosed. diagnosed. • Small firm testes; some female physical Small traits traits • Lower testosterone levels Hormonal Disorders: AndrogenHormonal Insensitivity Syndrome Insensitivity • Inherited condition occurring in 1/13,000 Inherited individuals individuals • Genetic males whose tissues to not respond Genetic to testosterone to • Female genitals, no female internal organs • At puberty, develops hips and breasts, no At pubic hair and no menstruation pubic • Many experience female gender identity Many Hormonal Disorders: Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Adrenal • A genetic female with ovaries and a genetic vagina develops externally as a male vagina • Due to malfunctioning of adrenal gland • Occurs in 1/13,000 live births – At birth, child has ambiguous genitalia – In the past, doctors and families choose to In assign female gender at birth assign Hormonal Disorders: DHT Deficiency Deficiency • • • • Internal male organs Internal Clitoris-like penis at birth Clitoris-like Undescended testes at birth Testes descend at puberty and penis Testes grows grows • Socialization A Related Condition: Hypospadias Hypospadias • Urethral opening located at non Urethral traditional location traditional • Urethra exists on underside of glans Urethra midway through the underside of the shaft or at the base of the scrotum shaft • Occurs in 1/770 male births • Repair is possible Gender Identity Disorder • Defined by the APA as a strong and Defined persistent cross-gender identification and persistent discomfort about one’s assigned sex (2000) assigned • Diagnosis not associated as hormonal Diagnosis or physiological • Requires experience of distress or Requires impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning other Gender Identity Disorder Gender – The goal of treatment for people with GID is The “lasting personal comfort with the gendered self” – Treatment is individual and multifaceted; Treatment can affirm cross-gender identification through: through: • • Psychotherapy Real-life experience living externally as desired Real-life gender gender • Hormonal therapy • Sex-reassignment surgery Transsexuality Transsexuality • Gender identity and sexual anatomy are Gender not congruent not • Prevalence of transsexuality unknown: Prevalence estimated 1/50,000 people over 15 yrs estimated • May occur with heterosexual, May homosexual, and bisexual orientations homosexual, • Gender reassignment Transsexual Phenomenon Transsexual • Transgender community embraces Transgender possibility of numerous genders and multiple social identities multiple • Other cultures recognize more than 2 Other genders genders • Paradigm shift of gender dichotomy • Employment protection Summary Summary • • • • Gender Gender role learning Contemporary gender roles Ambiguity and gender The Good Wife’s Guide From Housekeeping Monthly, 13 May, 1955*. From Housekeeping • Have dinner ready. Plan ahead, even Have the night before, to have a delicious meal ready on time for his return. This is a way of letting him know that you have be thinking about him and are concerned about his needs. Most men are hungry when they get home and the prospect of a good meal is part of the warm welcome needed. *This is an unconfirmed article *This • Prepare yourself. Take 15 minutes to Prepare rest so you'll be refreshed when he arrives. Touch up your make-up, put a ribbon in your hair and be fresh-looking. He has just been with a lot of workHe weary people. weary • Be a little gay and a little more Be interesting for him. His boring day may need a lift and one of your duties is to provide it. • Clear away the clutter. Make one last Clear trip through the main part of the house just before your husband arrives. Run a dust cloth over the tables. • During the cooler months of the year During you should prepare and light a fire for him to unwind by. Your husband will feel he has reached a haven of rest and order, and it will give you a lift too. After all, catering to his comfort will provide you with immense personal satisfaction. • Minimize all noise. At the time of his Minimize arrival, eliminate all noise of the washer, dryer or vacuum. Encourage the children to be quiet. • Be happy to see him. Be • Greet him with a warm smile and show Greet sincerity in your desire to please him. • Listen to him. You may have a dozen Listen important things to tell him, but the moment of his arrival is not the time. Let him talk first - remember, his topics of conversation are more important than yours. • Don't greet him with complaints and Don't problems. • Don't complain if he's late for dinner or Don't even if he stays out all night. Count this as minor compared to what he might have gone through at work • Make him comfortable. Have him lean Make back in a comfortable chair or lie him down in the bedroom. Have a cool or warm drink ready for him. • Arrange his pillow and offer to take off Arrange his shoes. Speak in a low, soothing and pleasant voice. • Don't ask him questions about his Don't actions or question his judgment or integrity. Remember, he is the master of the house and as such will always exercise his will with fairness and truthfulness. You have no right to question him. • A good wife always knows her place. good ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/16/2010 for the course FCS 2100 taught by Professor King during the Spring '10 term at Western Michigan.

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