Ch 2 Notes - The Cell Chromosomes and Genes Nucleus o...

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The Cell : Chromosomes and Genes Nucleus o Chromosomes carry genes, which contain DNA and RNA that contain the genetic information. o Somatic Cells have 46 chromosomes, set into 23 different pairs, one half from each parent. The first 22 pairs are called Autosomes while the 23 rd pair is the sex chromosomes and are either XX or XY. The autosome chromosomes carry the genetic information while the sex chromosomes carry the info for sex determination XY- male, XX- Female Each species has its own specific number of chromosomes. Cytoplasm o Contains the mitochondria and the ribosomes. The mitochondria are responsible for converting energy into a form that can be used by the cell. They contain they’re own DNA called mtDNA. o Difference from nuclear mitochondria is that its transferred from the mother, because egg cells retain their mitochondrial DNA while sperm cells lose theirs. o Ribosomes are made up partly of RNA and are essential to the synthesis of proteins. Mitosis and body Cells o Cell duplication divides in a way that the chromosomes remain constant. Prophase – the chromosomes strands coil and become shorter and thicker Metaphase- chromosomes move to the center of the cell and each chromosome duplicates itself, 46 pairs of chromosomes. Anaphase- the chromosomes strands separate and
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Ch 2 Notes - The Cell Chromosomes and Genes Nucleus o...

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