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Exam 4 Study Questions - Anthrbio 161 Study Questions Exam...

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Anthrbio 161 Study Questions Exam 4 General Principles for the Study of Human Adaptation Chapter 15 - ABO blood type - Sickle-cell trait - Lactose tolerance (223-224 in text) No, there is no correlation; its different based on regions and cultures 2. What is the position of the American Association of Physical Anthropology regarding “race”? a) All human populations derive from a common ancenstor b) Large genetic diversity within all human populations c) Geographic pattern of variation is complex and presents no major discontinuity Race is a consequence of social history and therefore any variation is transitory (225) 3. Is IQ a fixed quality? If not, how can it be increased? Does it seem to be a valid measure of intelligence? Why or why not? (226 in text) IQ is not a fixed quality, it can be increased based on cultural experiences, education, and environment. It does not seem valid because there are many kinds of intelligences and there is no evidence that it is genetically determined. 4. Define the following terms: -Adaptation (227-228) – the process of which an organism has attained a beneficial adjustment to the environment -Acclimation (228) – the adaptive biological changes that occur in response to a single experimentally induced stress rather than to multiple stresses. -Acclimatization (228) – the changes occurring within the lifetime of an organism that reduces the strain caused by stressful changes in the natural climate or by complex environmental stresses. -Homeostasis (230) – a condition of balance within a biological system maintained by the interaction of physiological mechanisms compensating for changes both internal and external. 5. What is the difference between adult acclimatization and developmental acclimitazation? (228 in text) Developmental acclimatization is based upon the fact that organism’s plasticity and susceptibility to environmental influence is inversely related to developmental states of the organism. Whereas for adults The Human Life Cycle
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Chapter 16 and 17 1. Fill in the following table with the stages of development in humans (236 in text) Name of Stage Age Range Growth Processes At This Stage Embryonic 0-12 weeks Formation of all the basic structures Fetal 16 weeks-birth Growth of preexisting cells and tissues Neonatal First 28 days after birth Not explained in text. Infancy Second month to the end of second year Rapid Growth in weight and length; appearance of deciduous (milk) teeth Childhood End of second year to the eighth year. Moderate growth in weight and length; eruption of first permanent molar and incisor; cessation of brain growth Puberty and Adolescence From the ninth to the nineteenth year activation of central nervous system mechanism for sexual development; increased hormonal activity; adolescent growth spurt in height and weight; eruption of permanent teeth; development of secondary sexual characteristics Old Age Fiftieth to seventieth year Beginning of decline in height but stability in weight and body composition Senescence Seventieth year to death
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