DernburgLecture1_1-29-10_forprinting

DernburgLecture1_1-29-10_forprinting - Cell Biology: the...

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Cell Biology: the study of cell structure and function Unlike genetics, cell biology is not deFned by a set of Frst principles ( e.g. , Mendel’s laws), or experimental tools ( e.g. , analysis of inheritance). Cell biologists are widely known as “fuzz-brains.” Cell biology began as a descriptive discipline (basically, cell anatomy) but is now geared toward the development and testing of molecular hypotheses to explain cellular processes. 1 Cells come in diverse shapes and sizes 2 Epithelial cells arranged to form the villi of the small intestine 3 Plant cells are surrounded by cellulose (a polysaccharide) 4 Bacteria ( Lactococcus lactis ) 5 Archaebacteria ( Methanosarcina ) 6
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Volvox aureus (single-celled green alga) 7 Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast) This single-celled fungus gives us bread, wine, beer, and lots of excellent experiments! 8 Red blood cells / white blood cells / platelets 9 Purkinje cell (mammalian neuron) 10 “Prokaryotes” The Tree of (free-living) Life based on molecular phylogeny Archaea and eubacteria look like each other, but archaea and eukaryotes are more closely related in evolutionary terms Single-celled (but they can live in a colony) Single-celled or multicellular Reproduce asexually (mostly) Reproduce sexually (mostly) 11 Eukaryotic cells contain membrane-bound compartments called “organelles” 12
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Morphological (shape-based) distinctions between different phyla are unreliable! A bacterial organelle, the magnetosome (Arash Komeili, PMB) Gemmata obscuriglobus, a eubacterium with a membrane-bound nucleus! The nucleus is the eponymous distinguishing feature of eukaryotes:“ true nuclei 13 0.2 nm 2 nm 20 nm 200 nm 2 μm 20 μm 0.2 mm 2 mm 2 cm 20 cm 2 m ATOMS MOLECULES ORGANELLES CELLS ORGANS ANIMALS Minimum resolvable by unaided human eye Minimum resolvable by light microscope Minimum resolvable by electron microscope You are here The Scale of Life 14 The retina is made up of individual cells that absorb light (photons) and convert it to electrical signals, much like the PIXELS on a CCD camera 15 magniFed “virtual image” To see more detail in small objects, it helps to magnify them. 16
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DernburgLecture1_1-29-10_forprinting - Cell Biology: the...

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