Lecture _8 - Molecular Evolution of Viruses and Their Hosts...

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Molecular Evolution of Viruses and Their Hosts Introduction to Comparative Virology PMB/MCB 114 Spring, 2009 Peter J. Dailey, Ph.D., MPH Cepheid peter.dailey@cepheid.com
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They’re all related… Viral Pathogenesis Immunity Evolution: Virus & Host
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Introduction to Molecular Evolution of Viruses and Their Hosts Introduction to Comparative Virology Spring, 2008 Peter J. Dailey, Ph.D., MPH Cepheid peter.dailey@cepheid.com
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Molecular Evolution of Viruses Outline Definitions and objectives • Why study the Molecular Evolution of Viruses? • How do Viral Populations Evolve? • Sources of Genomic Diversity • General pathways of Virus Evolution • Origin and Relationships Deduced by Genome Sequence Analysis • Contemporary Virus Evolution • Emerging Virus Infections • Spectrum of Host Virus Interactions • Virulence and Viral Evolution
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Definitions: Pathogenesis: The method by which an infectious agent produces disease in the host. The study of pathogenesis concerns itself with the mechanisms by which viruses injure discrete populations of cells in different organs to produce the signs and symptoms of disease in a particular host. Virulence: The capacity of an infectious agent, compared to other closely related infectious agents, to produce disease in a host. Virulence depends on a variety of viral factors and host factors . Disease: The sum of the effects on the host of virus replication and of the immune response.
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The Iceberg Concept
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The Iceberg Concept of Infection Example: West Nile Virus ~80% Asymptomatic ~20% “West Nile Fever” <1% CNS disease ~10% fatal (<0.1% of total infections) WNV Human Infection “Iceberg” 1 CNS disease case = ~150 total infections Very crude estimates
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Molecular Evolution of Viruses Definitions: Evolution: (Latin- evolvere ) to unroll, to roll forth, unrolling of a scroll. Very few fossils Evolution of viruses is contemporary; evolution in the “fast lane”—Its what’s happening now… It works both ways: Host populations grow and adapt, virus populations that can infect them are selected, with different virulence Viral infections can be significant selective forces in evolution of host populations
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Molecular Evolution of Viruses Definitions: Virus evolution: “Constant change in viral populations in the face of selective pressure.” Change: genetic sequence, pathogenesis, virulence, host range, “emergence”
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Parasite Host Environment
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Molecular Evolution of Viruses Outline • Definitions and objectives Why study the Molecular Evolution of Viruses? • How do Viral Populations Evolve? • Sources of Genomic Diversity • General pathways of Virus Evolution • Origin and Relationships Deduced by Genome Sequence Analysis • Contemporary Virus Evolution • Emerging Virus Infections • Spectrum of Host Virus Interactions • Virulence and Viral Evolution
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Molecular Evolution of Viruses Why Study the Evolution of Viruses and Their Hosts ?
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Molecular Evolution of Viruses: Why? Answer questions:
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This note was uploaded on 02/16/2010 for the course MCB C 58381 taught by Professor Professorbrittglaunsinger,professorandyjackson during the Spring '10 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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Lecture _8 - Molecular Evolution of Viruses and Their Hosts...

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