Lecture _10 - Host-virus equilibrium Immune evasion by...

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1 Laurent Coscoy Immune evasion by viruses Viral infections are highly dynamic processes: The virus must replicate and spread to additional host individuals for long- term survival. This is achieved despite a strong antiviral response. Viruses display a broad repertoire of strategies to cope with host defenses. In this co-evolutionary process, there must have been strong selective pressures to maintain both viable hosts and infectious viruses Host-virus equilibrium The Innate and Adaptive immune response to viruses 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 IFN-I NK-cells CTL Days after infection Innate Adaptive Innate Immune response: control infection at early stage Adaptive immune response: clear infection at later stages Innate response: Interferon type I (IFN-I) NK, NK-T cel s Complement TRIM5 α ± "10#&$²( ……… Adaptive response: CTL B-cells (antibodies) The Innate and Adaptive immune response to viruses Innate (IFN-I, NK) Adaptive (CTL, Ab) 0 3 6 9 Days Weeks/Months/years 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Influenza 0 3 6 9 Days Weeks/Months/years 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Hepatitis C 0 3 6 9 Days Weeks/Months/years 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 HIV 0 3 6 9 Days Weeks/Months/years 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 HSV Passive Mechanisms: - Infection of privileged tissues - Latency - Antigenic variation Active Mechanisms: - Immunomodulatory proteins . More aggressive Mechanisms: - Immunosuppression Different types of evasion strategies Passive Mechanisms: - Infection of privileged tissues - Latency - Antigenic variation Active Mechanisms: - Immunomodulatory proteins . More aggressive Mechanisms: - Immunosuppression Different types of evasion strategies
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2 Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-1 and 2) Infection of privileged tissues HSV1 and HSV2 are closely related, alpha herpesviruses Large seroprevalence, life long infection: HSV1: 60% of the population infected HSV2: 25% of the population infected HSV type 1 causes cold sores (also called fever blisters) on the lips. spread by kissing HSV type 2 causes sores in the genital area (genital herpes). spread by sexual contact. HSV-1 now accounts for as many as 30% of all genital herpes cases in the U.S Neurones do not express MHC-I molecules Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-1 and 2) Infection of privileged tissues HSV 1 usually establishes latency in the trigeminal ganglion.
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Lecture _10 - Host-virus equilibrium Immune evasion by...

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