The Body Defense - Animals Immunity Defenses Against...

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1 Animals: Immunity Animals: Immunity Defenses Against Disease Outline Outline 1. Key concepts 2. Physical barriers 3. Non-specific Internal Defenses 4. Specific responses – Immune System a. Components of Immune system b. Immune responses 5. Defenses Enhanced (Vaccines and allergies) 6. AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) 7. Key Terms 8. Conclusions Key Concepts: Key Concepts: 1. Vertebrates have physical, chemical, and cellular defenses against pathogenic organisms, tumors, and other agents 2. In the early stages of invasion and damage, white blood cells escape from capillaries and execute a counter attack 3. Some white blood cells make immune responses
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2 Key Concepts: 4. The antigen triggers an immune response 5. One type of immune response involves the production of antibodies 6. Another type of immune response involves whole cell responses Three Lines of Defense Three Lines of Defense c Pathogens Viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, parasitic worms Nonspecific Defenses Nonspecific Defenses – First Line First Line 1. Skin: a. cells – Prevent entry of pathogens b. glands (oil and sweat pH 3-5, discourages microbial growth) c. earwax – trap microorganisms 2. Mucous membranes - trap pathogens 3. filter air (nasal hairs) transport mucus 4. Acid: a. stomach b. vagina (limits growth of fungi and bacteria) 5. Saliva, tears with lysozyme (enzyme attacks the cell walls of many bacteria) 6. “harmless bacteria” - suppress pathogenic bacterial growth
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3 Nonspecific Defenses Nonspecific Defenses – First Line First Line Nonspecific Internal Defenses Nonspecific Internal Defenses 1. Phagocytic cells a. Neutrophils and macrophages (developed from monocytes) engulf and digest foreign cells. Eosinophils bombard large parasites 2. Natural killer cells (NK) – release chemical that break down their targets’ cell membrane (attack tumor cells, cells infected by viruses). The Roles of Phagocytes The Roles of Phagocytes Macrophages - Engulf and digest all foreign objects
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4 The Roles of Killer Cells The Roles of Killer Cells The The larval form larval form of of filaria filaria , a , a parasitic worm, being attacked by white blood cells Nonspecific Internal Defenses Nonspecific Internal Defenses 3. Inflammation – literally means “to set a fire” Injured tissues release chemicals. These chemicals stimulate
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The Body Defense - Animals Immunity Defenses Against...

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