Internal Environment - Controlling the Internal Controlling...

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1 Controlling the Internal Controlling the Internal Environment Environment A urinary system is crucial to balancing the intake and output of water and solutes Outline Outline 1. Key concepts 2. Thermoregulation 3. Temperature 4. Water Balance and Waste Disposal 5. Excretory Systems 6. Human Urinary System 7. Key Terms 8. Conclusions Key Concepts: c Animals are continuously gaining and losing water and dissolved substances but can maintain a constant internal environment c A urinary system is crucial to balancing the intake and output of water and solutes c Kidneys filter the blood in structures called nephrons
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2 Key Concepts: c Nephrons receive water and solutes from capillaries and return most of the filtrate back to the blood c Urine is the filtrate not returned to the capillaries c ADH and aldosterone are hormones that adjust urine levels c Internal body temperature is maintained within a stable range by metabolism and adaptations Controlling the Internal Environment Thermoregulation: Regulation of body temperature Ectotherms vs. Endotherms 1. Physiological Adjustments: a. Insulation b. Vasodilation c. Vasoconstriction d. Countercurrent heat exchange Temperature
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3 2. Evaporative heat loss: a. Sweating b. Alternatives Camels 3. Behavioral responses: 4. Thermoregulation by class: a. Invertebrates: mostly ectotherms i. Exceptions: Bees and large moths b. Amphibians and Reptiles: ectotherms i. Adaptations Bull frogs Marine iguana c. Fishes: mostly ectotherms i. Body temperature close to ambient ii. Exceptions: Large active species blue fin tuna, swordfish, great white shark
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Internal Environment - Controlling the Internal Controlling...

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