chapter 21 notes

chapter 21 notes - Final Exam: extra notes Chapter 21...

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Final Exam: extra notes Chapter 21 Reductionism The reduction of complex systems to simpler components that are more manageable to study Used when dissecting an animal (rendering it non-functional), reducing a cell to its chemical components (no longer a cell) makes it difficult to analyze Watson and Crick: studied the molecular structure of DNA extracted from cells Systems Biology Its goal is to construct models for the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems Successful models enable biologists to predict how a change in one or more variables will affect other components and the whole system The systems approach enables one to pose new kinds of questions Examples: how might a drug that lowers blood pressure affect the functions of organs throughout the human body, how might increasing a crop’s water supply affect processes in plants, such as the storage of molecules essential for human nutrition Genomics The study of an organism’s total genetic composition (genome) Made possible by new methods of sequencing: starts with a cytogenic map of each chromosome (chromosome banding pattern and location of specific genes by fluorescence in situ hybridization 1. Linkage mapping : Ordering of genetic markers such as RFLP’s, STR’s, and other polymorphisms (about 200 per chromosome). The order of the markers and the relative distances between them are based on recombination frequencies 2. Physical mapping : Ordering of large over-lapping fragments cloned in YAC and BAC vectors, followed by ordering of smaller fragments cloned in phage and plasmid vectors. Distances between markers are expressed by a physical measure, usually the number of base pairs along the DNA. Ultimate goal: to determine the complete nucleotide sequence of each
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chapter 21 notes - Final Exam: extra notes Chapter 21...

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