ch01 - Chapter 1 Introduction Silberschatz Galvin and Gagne...

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Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Chapter 1: Introduction
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1.2 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Chapter 1: Introduction What Operating Systems Do Computer-System Organization Computer-System Architecture Operating-System Structure Operating-System Operations Process Management Memory Management Storage Management
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1.3 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Objectives To provide a grand tour of the major operating systems components To provide coverage of basic computer system organization
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1.4 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 What is an Operating System? A program that acts as an intermediary between a user of a computer and the computer hardware Operating system goals: Execute user programs and make solving user problems easier Make the computer system convenient to use Use the computer hardware in an efficient manner
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1.5 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Computer System Structure Computer system can be divided into four components Hardware – provides basic computing resources CPU, memory, I/O devices Operating system Controls and coordinates use of hardware among various applications and users Application programs – define the ways in which the system resources are used to solve the computing problems of the users Word processors, compilers, web browsers, database systems, video games Users People, machines, other computers
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1.6 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Four Components of a Computer System
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1.7 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Operating System Definition User view Depends on the provided interface System view OS is a resource allocator Manages all resources Decides between conflicting requests for efficient and fair resource use OS is a control program Controls execution of programs to prevent errors and improper use of the computer
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1.8 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Operating System Definition (Cont) No universally accepted definition “Everything a vendor ships when you order an operating system” is good approximation But varies wildly “The one program running at all times on the computer” is the kernel . Everything else is either a system program (ships with the operating system) or an application program
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1.9 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Computer System Organization Computer-system operation One or more CPUs, device controllers connect through common bus providing access to shared memory Concurrent execution of CPUs and devices competing for memory cycles
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1.10 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Computer-System Operation I/O devices and the CPU can execute concurrently Each device controller is in charge of a particular device type Each device controller has a local buffer CPU moves data from/to main memory to/from local buffers I/O is from the device to local buffer of controller Device controller informs CPU that it has finished its operation by causing an interrupt
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1.11
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ch01 - Chapter 1 Introduction Silberschatz Galvin and Gagne...

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