Lecture15_AP2

Lecture15_AP2 - 1 Quantum States of Hydrogen Electron Spin...

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2 Quantum States of Hydrogen Electron Spin The Pauli Exclusion Principle Atomic Structure Summary
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3 We have seen that three quantum numbers n, l, m are needed to specify a quantum state of the hydrogen atom n = 1,2,3,. .. l = 0,1,2,. .., n 1 m = l , l + 1,. ..,0,1,2,. .., + l Long before the quantum theory, these numbers were used to classify spectral lines (but with no understanding of their meaning)
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4 Even though we now understand the meaning of the quantum numbers, we still use the old spectroscopic codes to label the states of atoms The code uses n and a letter: S for l = 0 P for l = 1 D for l = 2 F for l = 3 G for l = 4
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5 Energy, eV Energy level diagram of hydrogen and state transitions -13.6 eV -3.4 eV Transition rule
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6 When viewed with high precision the energy levels of hydrogen contain fine structure that is not explained by the theory we have outlined so far. In 1925, in order to explain the fine structure, the Austrian physicist Wolfgang Pauli suggested that an electron “possesses” another attribute that takes on only 2 values .
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7 Later that year, the Leiden graduate students S. Goudsmit and G. Uhlenbeck suggested that Pauli’s new quantum number could be a component of an
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Lecture15_AP2 - 1 Quantum States of Hydrogen Electron Spin...

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