Lecture22_MS1

Lecture22_MS1 - 1 Introduction The Ionic Bond The Covalent...

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2 Introduction The Ionic Bond The Covalent Bond Summary
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3 Molecules are quantum systems in which at least two nuclei interact with one or more electrons For example, the N 2 molecule consists of an assembly of 2 nuclei and 14 electrons. In general, it is extremely difficult to compute the properties of a molecule when viewed as an assembly of electrons and nuclei.
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4 Instead, we use a much simpler, approximate , model in which a molecule is viewed as a composite of atoms or ions (charged atoms) that bond together in different ways. The basic assumption is that bonding does not alter the identity of the atoms or ions too much. Therefore, they can be thought of as the fixed building blocks of molecules.
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5 Atoms or ions can bond in different ways By exchanging electrons By sharing electrons The two principal bonding mechanisms are called ionic and covalent bonding. The other important bonds are dipole-dipole and metallic bonds.
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6 Why do bonds occur? Because systems tend to exist in the lowest possible energy state. A molecule will form and be stable if its total energy is lower than the sum of the total energies of the individual atoms when they are far apart.
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8 Every electron must occupy a different quantum state. Consequently, as ions or atoms are brought closer and closer together, some electrons will be forced into (empty) states of higher energy, thereby increasing the energy of the system.
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Lecture22_MS1 - 1 Introduction The Ionic Bond The Covalent...

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