Chap3 - Chapter 3: Cell Structur e I. Biologic al unitsA. 3...

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Chapter 3: Cell Structure I. Biological units- A. 3 classes 1. Prokaryotic cells: 2. Eukaryotic cells: 3. Viruses: I. Membranes (Eukaryotic cells) Functions: 1. Regulate passage of substances into and out of cell 2. Detect chemical messages 3. Link adjacent cells together 4. Anchor proteins, including protein filaments A. Membrane Structure 1. Membrane Proteins a. Integral b. Transmembrane c. Peripheral B. Membrane Junctions 1. Desmosomes: plasma membrane of adjacent cells linked by fibers but separated by filled with cementing surface (Ex: ) 2. Tight junction: cell junction in epithelial tissues that extends around cells and restricts molecular diffusion between cells
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3. Gap Junction: protein channels linking cytoplasm of adjacent cells that allow ions and small molecules to flow between cells (Ex: cardiac muscle) II. Cell Organelles 1. Nucleus : a. Function: b. Contains nuclear envelope, pores, nucleolus, chromatin c. Nucleolus 2. Ribosomes : 3. Endoplasmic Reticulum : Network of membranes a. Granular (Rough): b. Agranular (Smooth): 4. Golgi Apparatus : Membranous sacs. Sorts and modifies different proteins received from ER into vesicles that are delivered to various parts of cells (Ex: glycoproteins) 5. Mitochondria : 6. Lysosomes : Functions to breakdown cellular debris. 7. Peroxisomes : Consume and destroy certain products that can be toxic to cells 8. Filaments : Cell's cytoskeleton. Maintain and change cell shape and produce cell movements a. Microfilaments b. Intermediate filaments c. Microtubules d. Cilia
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Proteins I. Genetic Code A. Gene : Sequence of nucleotides containing the information that determines AA sequence of a single polypeptide chain. The unit of hereditary information 1. Each individual inherits 2 copies of each gene (alleles) B. Genome : All the nucleotide sequences that specify an organism's structure and function 1. Human genome: C. Transference of genetic information 1. Transcription- Process of transferring genetic info from DNA to RNA 2. Translation- Process of transferring coded info in RNA to assemble a protein D. DNA genetic code -Sequence of 3 nucleotide bases that specify a singly AA. The sequence of this triplet codes along a gene determines sequence of AA in a protein. II.
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Chap3 - Chapter 3: Cell Structur e I. Biologic al unitsA. 3...

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