endoregulation_chap48

endoregulation_chap48 - Endocrine Regulation Chapter 48 KEY...

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Unformatted text preview: Endocrine Regulation Chapter 48 KEY CONCEPTS Endocrine glands and tissues secrete hormones, chemical messengers that bind to specific receptors on (or in) target cells and regulate physiological processes Learning Objective 1 Compare endocrine with nervous system function Describe how these systems work together to regulate body processes Endocrine System Endocrine glands, cells, tissues that secrete hormones (chemical signals) regulate physiological processes Signals a wide range of target cell types Most endocrine responses are slow but long-lasting Nervous System Helps regulate many endocrine responses Neurons signal other neurons, muscle cells, gland cells including endocrine cells Responds rapidly to stimuli transmits electrical and chemical signals KEY CONCEPTS The endocrine and nervous systems work closely together to regulate life processes and maintain homeostasis Learning Objective 2 How is endocrine action regulated by negative feedback systems? Negative Feedback Systems Regulate hormone secretion Hormones released in response to change in steady state trigger responses counteract changed conditions Restore homeostasis Very high Normal range Calcium level Very low Time Fig. 48-1, p. 1030 Ca 2+ level exceeds normal range inhibits parathyroid glands Secrete less parathyroid hormone Less Ca 2+ released into the blood HOMEOSTATIC RANGE More Ca 2+ released into the blood Secrete more parathyroid hormone Ca 2+ concentration in the blood below normal rangestimulates parathyroid glands Negative Feedback Negative Feedback KEY CONCEPTS Most endocrine processes are regulated by negative feedback systems, often involving concentrations of specific ions or chemical compounds Learning Objective 3 Identify four main chemical groups to which hormones are assigned Give two examples for each group 4 Hormone Groups 1. Fatty acid derivatives prostaglandins juvenile hormone of insects Juvenile hormone A prostaglandin (a) Hormones derived from fatty acids 4 Hormone Groups 2. Steroid hormones secreted by adrenal cortex, ovary, testis molting hormone of insects Molting hormone (ecdysone) Cortisol Estradiol (principal estrogen) (b) Steroid hormones 4 Hormone Groups 3. Amino acid derivatives thyroid hormones epinephrine Norepinephrine Epinephrine Thyroxine (T 4 ) Thyroid hormones Triiodothyronine (T 3 ) (c) Amino acid derivatives 4 Hormone Groups 4. Peptides and proteins antidiuretic hormone (ADH), glucagon (peptide hormones) insulin (protein) Oxytocin ADH (d) Peptide hormones Learning Objective 4 Compare four types of endocrine signaling Classical Endocrine Signaling Endocrine glands (glands without ducts) secrete hormones into interstitial fluid Hormones transported by blood bind with receptors of specific target cells Neuroendocrine Signaling Neurons secrete neurohormones transported down axons and secreted Transported by blood Autocrine Signaling...
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endoregulation_chap48 - Endocrine Regulation Chapter 48 KEY...

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