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Review - Review Operating System Concepts 8th Edition...

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Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Operating System Concepts – 8 th Edition, Review
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2.2 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Operating System Concepts – 8 th Edition Operating System Structure Multiprogramming needed for efficiency Single user cannot keep CPU and I/O devices busy at all times Multiprogramming organizes jobs (code and data) so CPU always has one to execute A subset of total jobs in system is kept in memory One job selected and run via job scheduling When it has to wait (for I/O for example), OS switches to another job Timesharing (multitasking) is logical extension in which CPU switches jobs so frequently that users can interact with each job while it is running, creating interactive computing Response time should be < 1 second Each user has at least one program executing in memory process If several jobs ready to run at the same time CPU scheduling If processes don’t fit in memory, swapping moves them in and out to run Virtual memory allows execution of processes not completely in memory
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2.3 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Operating System Concepts – 8 th Edition Operating-System Operations Interrupt driven by hardware Software error or request creates exception or trap Division by zero, request for operating system service Other process problems include infinite loop, processes modifying each other or the operating system Dual-mode operation allows OS to protect itself and other system components User mode and kernel mode Mode bit provided by hardware Provides ability to distinguish when system is running user code or kernel code Some instructions designated as privileged , only executable in kernel mode System call changes mode to kernel, return from call resets it to user
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2.4 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Operating System Concepts – 8 th Edition Transition from User to Kernel Mode Timer to prevent infinite loop / process hogging resources Set interrupt after specific period Operating system decrements counter When counter zero generate an interrupt Set up before scheduling process to regain control or terminate program that exceeds allotted time
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2.5 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2009 Operating System Concepts – 8 th Edition Process Management A process is a program in execution. It is a unit of work within the system. Program is a passive entity , process is an active entity . Process needs resources to accomplish its task CPU, memory, I/O, files Initialization data Process termination requires reclaim of any reusable resources Single-threaded process has one program counter specifying location of next instruction to execute Process executes instructions sequentially, one at a time, until completion Multi-threaded process has one program counter per thread Typically system has many processes, some user, some operating system running concurrently on one or more CPUs Concurrency by multiplexing the CPUs among the processes / threads
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2.6
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