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Chapter_48_Reproduction - Chapter 48 Reproduction...

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Chapter 48: Reproduction Vocabulary : Asexual reproduction – reproduction in which a single parent gives rise to offspring that are genetically identical (except for mutations) to the parent Sexual reproduction – involves two parents and fusion of gametes; promotes genetic diversity among species population Budding - in which a small part of the parent’s body separates from the rest and develops into a new individual Fragmentation - occurs when the body of the parent breaks into several pieces, with each piece regenerating the missing parts and developing into a whole animal Parthenogenesis (“virgin birth”) - a form of asexual reproduction in which an unfertilized egg develops into an adult animal External fertilization – gametes released into water simultaneously; fusion occurs outside of female body Internal fertilization – gametes released directly into female body; fusion occurs inside of female body Hermaphroditism - the form of sexual reproduction in which a single individual produces both eggs and sperm Spermatogenesis - the process of sperm cell production, occurs within the seminiferous tubules in the testes Spermatogonia – undifferentiated diploid cells in the seminiferous tubules; some become primary spermatocytes Spermatid – product of spermatogonia primary spermatocyte secondary spermatocyte spermatid; develops into mature sperm Acrosome – covering of head of sperm that contains enzymes that helps sperm penetrate the egg Sertoli cells - these cells, which line the fluid filled lumen of the seminiferous tubule, secrete hormones and other signaling molecules; joined by tight junctions and form a blood-testis barrier which prevents the entrance into the tubule of harmful substances Scrotum – skin covered sac suspended from groin of males; house testes and allow for proper sperm development by maintaining a temperature lower than that of the body temperature; connected to pelvic cavity by inguinal canals Seminal vesicles –vesicles that secrete a nutritive fluid rich in fructose and prostaglandins; nutrients provide energy for sperm after ejaculation Prostate gland – gland that secretes an alkaline fluid containing calcium, citric acid, and enzymes; prostatic fluid may be important in neutralizing the acidic environment of the vagina and in increasing sperm motility Bulbourethral glands – glands located on each side of the urethra that release a mucous secretion during sexual arousal; fluid lubricates the penis Penis – an erectile copulatory organ that delivers sperm into the female reproductive tract Testosterone - the principal androgen, or male sex hormone; steroid produced by the interstitial cells between the seminiferous tubules in the testes Oogenesis – process of ovum production; occurs in ovaries of female Primary oocyte – formed when oogonia increase in size; remain in prophase of first meiotic division (resting phase) that lasts throughout childhood and into adult life Follicle
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