Chapter Eleven Concepts and Terms

Chapter Eleven Concepts and Terms - BIO 240-75 Fall 2009...

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BIO 240-75 Fall 2009 Vocabulary, Concepts and Terms for Chapter 11 Cell Communication Signal transduction-the process by which a signal on a cell's surface is converted to a specific cellular response in a series of steps. Cell junctions-directly connect the cytoplasms of adjacent cells. Gap junctions-a junction between animal cells that allow molecules to pass readily between adjacent cells without crossing plasma membranes. Plasmodesmata-a junction between adjacent plant cells that allows molecules to pass readily without crossing plasma membranes. Cell-cell recognition-two cells in an animal may communicate by interaction between molecules protruding from their surfaces. Paracrine signaling-a secreting cell acts on nearby target cells by discharging molecules of a local regulator into the extracellular fluid. Synaptic signaling-a nerve cell releases neurotransmitter molecules into a synapse, stimulating the target cell. Long-distance signaling-signaling that requires signals to move further to reach receptor. Hormonal signaling-in animals, also called endocrine signaling, specialized cells release hormone molecules into vessels of the circulatory system, by which they travel to target cells in other parts of the body. Plant hormones sometimes travel in vessels but more often reach their targets by moving through cells or by diffusing through the air as a gas. Three stages of cell signaling: Reception, Transduction, and Response Reception-the target cell's detection of a signaling molecule coming from outside the cell. A chemical signal is "detected" when the signaling molecule binds to a receptor protein located at the cell's surface or inside the cell. transduction-the binding of the signaling molecule changes the receptor protein in some way, initiating the process of transduction. This coverts the signal to a form that can bring about a specific cellular response. response-the transduced signal finally triggers a specific cellular response.
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Chapter Eleven Concepts and Terms - BIO 240-75 Fall 2009...

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