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240-75 Ch 13 Terms Fa 09 - BIO 240-75 Fall 2009 Vocabulary...

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BIO 240-75 Fall 2009 Vocabulary, Concepts and Terms for Chapter 13 Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Heredity-the transmission of traits from one generation to the next. Variation-differences between members of the same species. Genetics-the scientific study of heredity and hereditary variation. Chromosomes-a structure carrying genetic material, found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Each chromosome consists of one very long DNA molecule and associated proteins. Genes- a discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses). Asexual reproduction-the generation of offspring from a single parent that occurs without the fusion of gametes. In many, but not all, cases, the offspring are genetically identical to the parent. Sexual reproduction-a type of reproduction in which two parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from the gametes of the two parents. Karyotype-a display of the chromosome pairs of a cell arranged by size and shape. Homologous chromosomes-a pair of chromosomes of the same length, centromere position, and staining pattern that possess genes for the same characters at corresponding loci. One homolgous chromosome is inherited from the organism's father and one from the mother. (AKA homologs). Autosomes- a chromosome that is not directly involved in determining sex; not a sex chromosome. Sex chromosomes-a chromosome responsible for determining the sex of an individual. X chromosome-carried by either the mother or father (All women have two X chromosomes, men have XY chromosomes) Y chromosome-chromosome carried by men that determines sex of the individual to be male. Diploid-a cell containing two sets of chromosomes (2n), one set inherited from each parent. Haploid-a cell containing only one set of chromosomes (n). Chromatid-
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Sister chromatid- either of two copies of a duplicated chromosome attached to each other by proteins at the centromere and, sometimes, along the arms. While joined, two sister chromatids make up one chromosome; chromatids are eventually separated during mitosis or meiosis II. Non-sister chromatid-form chiasma to exchange genetic material during meiosis. Centromere-the specialized region of the chromosome where two sister chromatids are most closely attached. Fertilization-the union of haploid gametes to produce a diploid zygote.
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