IGA9e_ch02_labels - 090407

IGA9e_ch02_labels - 090407 - CHAPTER 2 Single-Gene...

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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 2 Single-Gene Inheritance CHAPTER OUTLINE 2.2 Single-gene inheritance patterns 2.3 The chromosomal basis of single-gene inheritance patterns 2.1 Genes and chromosomes 2.5 Sex-linked single-gene inheritance patterns 2.6 Human pedigree analysis Single-gene inheritance patterns Chapter 2 Opener The monastery of the father of genetics, Gregor Mendel Figure 2-9 The seven phenotypic pairs studied by Mendel Figure 2-10 Cross-pollination and selfing are two types of crosses Figure 2-11 Mendel’s crosses resulted in specific phenotypic ratios Table 2-1 Figure 2-12 A single-gene model explains Mendel’s ratios endel’s explanation: . Existence of genes – hereditary determinants of a particulate nature. . Genes are in pairs – alternative phenotypes of a character or trait are determined by different forms of a single type of gene – alleles. . Principle of segregation – members of the gene pair separate equally into gametes. . Gametic content – each gamete carries only one member of each gene pair. . Random fertilization – union of one gamete from each parent to form the offspring Questions about heredity answered by Mendel: 1. What is inherited? alleles of genes 2. How are they inherited? according to principles of segregation and independent assortment 3. What is the role of chance? for each individual, inheritance is determined by chance, but within a population this chance operates in a context of strictly defined probabilities The chromosomal basis of single-gene inheritance patterns Figure 2-13 Stages of the asexual cell cycle Figure 2-14 Cell division in common life cycles Figure 2-15 Key stages of meiosis and mitosis Box 2-1 Stages of Mitosis Box 2-2 Stages of Meiosis Figure 2-17 Demonstration of equal segregation within one meiocyte in the yeast S. cerevisiae Figure 2-18 DNA molecules replicate to form identical chromatids Figure 2-19 Nuclear division at the DNA level Genes and chromosomes Figure 2-2 The nuclear genome Figure 2-3 A diploid genome visualized Figure 2-4a Chromosomal DNA is wrapped around histones Figure 2-4b Chromosomal DNA is wrapped around histones Figure 2-5 Chromosomal condensation by supercoiling Progressive levels of chromosome packing 1. DNA winds onto nucleosome spools 2. The nucleosome chain coils into a solenoid 3. Solenoid forms loops, and the loops attach to a central scaffold 4. Scaffold plus loops arrange themselves into a giant supercoil Visible chromosome landmarks Chromosome number Highest known diploid chromosome number Indian fern Ophioglossum reticulatum (2n = 1260) Chromosome size and type Heterochromatin and euchromatin...
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IGA9e_ch02_labels - 090407 - CHAPTER 2 Single-Gene...

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