AYK5 - when the difference between types of substrate is...

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Olesia Stockhold Applying your knowledge #5 Enzymes are a very important part of the process that makes a living thing alive. An enzyme is a protein-based molecule that speeds up a chemical reaction in a living organism. The enzyme will act as a biological catalyst for specific chemical reactions, converting to a specific set of reactants called substrates, or a molecule on which an enzyme acts, and then into specific products. 1 The enzyme has a specific shape and size that only “fits” to a specific substrate molecule. The substrate connects with the “attachment” site on the enzyme. The enzyme can change to fit perfectly and this is known as induced fit hypothesis. This theory can be looked at like a wrench (enzyme attachment site) and a nut or bolt (substrate). The wrench can be adjusted to the fit the shape and size of the nut. 2 Enzymes are able to distinguish between certain substrates, even
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Unformatted text preview: when the difference between types of substrate is minimal. This characteristic makes it so that an enzyme is not universal. There are many differences between a fat and a sugar molecule; they are not the same substance. Just like a lock and key, the wrong key will not open the lock, but if you find the right one, the lock opens and something new happens. It is the same with enzymes acting on substrates. The only way the reaction will work between an enzyme and a substrate is if the substrate is the right key. The fat molecule and the sugar molecule are different keys for specific locks. So, no, I would not expect a fat molecule and a sugar molecule to be acted on by the same enzyme. 1 jr., W. C. (2002). MedTerms. Retrieved 2002, from Medicine net: www.medicinenet.com 2 Enger, E. d. (2009). Concepts in Biology (13th ed.)....
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