ind. essay - Olesia Stockhold Unit#1 Essay Inductive and...

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Olesia Stockhold Unit #1 Essay June 15, 2009 Inductive and Deductive Reasoning There are many times in our lives that we have made arguments to prove a case or thought process, in school, at home, work and in social settings. Some of us may argue a bit more than our peers may like, and some of us never question anything they hear. Interestingly enough, there is a science being the arguments we so commonly take for granted. Being able to distinguish an argument from a non-argument, and its form, changes the way a person approaches reasoning on a day-to-day level. An argument makes an inference based on evidence. It may or may not use indicator words to separate the premises from the conclusion(s). If there are no indicator words, then the conclusion will be the subject of the passage that states the argument. The subject is found in the topic sentence of the paragraph. Good English style would, then, place the conclusion at the beginning of the paragraph. (Logic coach 10). In order to critique an argument, one must decide which form this argument follows. The argument’s form is categorized as deductive or inductive. Within the deductive and inductive argument forms, there are many key factors as to the type of deductive or inductive argument has been presented. These factors are sound or unsound, week or strong, cogent or uncogent, and proof of validity. When properly critiquing an argument for the purpose of logic, it is imperative that these details are listed along with the form. Reliably, an argument has both premise and conclusion. A premise is supporting statements that directly support the conclusion. A simple argument has two premises and a conclusion; a more complex argument may contain many claims, but these can always be divided up into groups of three--two premises and a conclusion. In an argument, its two premises only support the conclusion, but each premise itself can be supported in a
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number of ways: Supporting arguments, Definition, assumptions, explanations, anecdotes. Evidence takes the form of a verifiable statement, and authority takes the form of an evaluative statement. Notice that the words “facts” and “opinions” are not used because people tend to disregard opinions and only believe facts. Both can be used as supporting statements or premise in a valid, or true argument. (Mission critical) Name the identifiers/indicators Premise indicators : Since, as indicated by, because, for, in that, may be inferred from, as, seeing that, for the reason that, inasmuch as, given that, may be concluded from, or the reason that, due to the fact that Conclusion indicators : Therefore, wherefore, accordingly, we may conclude, entails that, hence, thus, consequently, we may infer that, it must be that, whence, so, it follows that, implies that The conclusion or main point is the claim that is supported directly from the premise, or claims to be. Example
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This note was uploaded on 02/17/2010 for the course PHI 113 taught by Professor Camp during the Summer '09 term at Front Range Community College.

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ind. essay - Olesia Stockhold Unit#1 Essay Inductive and...

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